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Full text of "Physical aspects of physical education for police"

GEORGE WILLIAMS 
COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




CHICAGO 



m«i^^^2fSS 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF 
PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR POLICE 



GRADUATING THESIS 
Of 

Edward W. Ruehrwein 
Department of Physical Education 



In Candidacy for the Degree of 
Bachelor of Physical Education 



Thirty- third Annual Coxmnen cement of 

THE YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION COLLEGE 

Chicago -------- Lake Geneva 

19 2 3 



BENEDICTINE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 
IN THE KINDLON HALL Of LEARNING 
5700 COLLEGE ROAD 
LISLE IL 60532-0900 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



I. INTROrUCTION: 
II. OBJECTIVE OP ?KYSIC/iL EDUCATION: 

1. General Education 1 

2. Physical Education 2 

3. Physical Education Beyond the School Period 2 

4. Setting Up a Physical Ideal 3 

A. An Ideal Product of tne Cirri culiim 

B. The Ideal T3ecomes a Policeiiian 

C. The Policeiaan as Ke is To-day 
III. OCCUPATION AND HEALTH: 

1.1. Hygiene and Health 15 

2. Causes of Disease 15 

3. Physical Handicaps of the Police 18 

4. Preoccupation 25 

5. Health Education 27 
IV. POLICE FUNCTION: 

1. Police Function Defined 29 

2. Ancient Police 29 

3. Despotic Government 29 

4. Relation of Police to Public 30 

5. Function of Police in United States 30 

6. First Modem Police Force 31 

7. Ueaning of Term "Police" 31 

8. Real Opportunity for Public Service 32 



PAGE 
V. PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES OF THE POLICEMAN: 

1. Specific Abilities; Cases '.Vhere Needed 34 

2. Influence and Effect of These Activities 37 
VI: SELECTING THE PATROLMAN: 

1. Application 46 

2. Basic RequireiaentB 46 

3. Medical Exa;iiination 48 

4. Siimmary of Causes for Rejection 51 

5. Physical Tests 55 
VII. PHYSICAL EFFICrcNCY: 

1. Msui Vs. Machine - 59 

2. The Human Machine 59 

3. Basis of Military Efficiency 61 

4. Police'.ian and Soldier Alike 61 

5. Civil Service Physical Standard for Police 62 

6. Civil Service Efficiency 64 

7. Physical Efficiency Tests 66 
VIII. SARGENT'S TEST: 

1. Police Department of Chicago 68 

2. Police Field Day 68 

3. Explanation of Sargent's Test 73 

4. Charts 76 

IX. CONCLUSION REGARDING PHYSICAL EFFICIENCY OF THE 

POLICEMAN OF CHICAGO: 96 

X. THE Y. M. C. A. AND THE POLICE 101 

BIBLIOGRAPHY: 108 



.^ ,■ 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 

OF 

PHYSICAL EDUCATIOH FOR POLICE . 

I, INTRODUCTION. 

The aim of tnis txiesis is to analyse the physical 
life of the policeman of Chicago in tne terms of Physical 
"Education with the ultimate idea of furnisning sound prin- 
ciples upon which could be built a program of Physical 
Education that would be beneficial to the men of the Police 
Department and to the Department itself. 

No particular fad or system is laid down as the 
system of Physical Education for the Police Department of 
Chicago, but there are here introduced principles of Physi- 
cal Education which would simplify the building of a program 
of Physical Education for the rolice. 

An attempt is made to get down to tiie fundamental 
physical characteristics and abilities as set forth by 
Professor BobbitL in his Educational Monograph "Curriculum- 
Making in Los Angeles". A policeman, perfect physically, 
is set up as an ideal for the Police Department. Ho 
attempt is made to elaborate on other than the purely 
physical values of Physical Education. Other values are 
to be incidental, so as not to lead off inlo the social 
and moral realms of Physical Education. 



In analyzing the activities of the policeioan, first 
hand experience has been used wherever it was possible. 
Newspaper accounts, oral questionings ana personal observa- 
tions are the only sources of information available in many 
instances, and this is modestly presented for what it may 
be worth. 

Physical tests have been made on a scientific basis 
and the charts drawn with the greatest care so as to set 
forth as clear as possible the significance of tiie tests. 
No foredrawn conclusions preceded tne making of the tests. 
The conclusions reached have been drawn only from the 
actual results of the experiments and the limited amoiint 
of information available in regard to the individuals. 
Therefore* no general principles may be laid down from 
these experiments, but undoubtedly they set forth some 
idea of what actually may be found in applying tiiese tests 
to larger groups and securing more detailed infori^^tion 
concerning their habits of living. 

The interest ana co-operation of the following 
members of the Police Department of Chicago gives great 
promise for the future of Pi^sical Education in its re- 
lation to the Police, and special thanJcs is hereby given 
to Chief of Police Charles C. Fitzmorris, Captain Allman, 
Lieut. McCarthy, and Sgts. Sloop and Kellman. 



- 1 - 

II. OBJECTIVE OP PHYSICAL EDUCATION. 
1. General Education. 
Modem education must look to the life of the com- 
munity by way of discoTering its specific objective. It 
must aim to produce results. Professor Bobbitt states in 
his "Curriculiim-Uaking in Los Angeles" that "these results 
are human abilities, habits, attitudeSf appreciationsi 
skills, powers of judgment, personal characteristics of 
▼arious kinds, etc." 

^Dewey states that "the psychological and the social 
sides of life are organically related, and tiriat education 
cannot be regarded as a comproaxise between the two, or a 
Buperimposition of the one upon the other". The same may 
be said about the physical and psychological aspects of 
life. However, for convenience, Bobbitt has classified 
the abilities and characteristics under ten different 
headings* as follows: 

I. Social Intercommunication, mainly language. 
II. The Development and Maintenance of One's 
Physical Powers. 
III. Unspecialized Practical Labors. 
IV. The Labors of One's Calling. 
y. The Activities of the Efficient Citizen. 
VI. Activities Involved in One's General Social 
Relationships and Behavior. 

1. Dewey - "How We Think". 



VII. Leisure Occupation, Recreation, AmuBements. 
VIII. Develcpment and Maintenance of One's Mental 
efficiency. 
IX. Religious Activities. 

X. Parental Activities, the Upbringing of Children, 
the Maintenance of the Home Life. 

2. Physical Education. 

Physical Education has been defined as txie science 
of the relation of mind and body to each other and to tlie 
habits and environment which effect them. It deald with 
the health of body and mind, education of body and mind 
and development of our instincts. 

It is impossible to separate Physical Education 
from General Education. It is a part of education which 
has its physical, mental, social and religious aspects. 
To reach into all of tx^ese and interpret them in the life 
of any individual would be a very complicated and lengthy 
task, and it is for this reason tliat the author is deal- 
ing specifically with the physical aspect of Physical 
Education. 

3. Physical Education Beyond the School Period. 

A casual observer of most of our physical education 
magazines would be very likely to get the conception of 
Physical Education as something which is almost entirely 
concerned with the development of the boys and girls of 



- 3 - 

the school age. There is quite a bit of truth In this 
supposition I and, there are reasons for placing this em- 
phasis on the deyelopment of the children while in school. 
But there is every reason why we must not stop when the 
child leaves school. Compare the number of years that 
the individual spends during the school period with the 
number of years that he spends in earning his daily bread 
after he leaves sciriool. It will be discovered that the 
average length of time spent covering the school period 
is very insignificant in comparison with the remaining 
period of one* a life. The average child does not stay in 
school long enough to be fully developed nor to finish 
the curriculum. 

4. Setting Up a Physical Ideal. 
A plan for Los Angeles Curriculum-MaJcing, as 
worked out by Professor Bobbitt. would give us an ideal 
citizen if the individual would complete the curriculum. 
A. An Ideal Product of the Curriculum. 
To illustrate the point just mentionedi a modem 
Physical Director might look ahead twenty or thirty years 
and see a physically perfect product of the Los An<ieles 
School Curriculiim. Our popular magazines would be apt to 
write it up in this fashion: 

Los Angeles, Calif. - 1950. 
Annual Report of Board of Education. 
The case of John Smith, one of the most efficient and 



- 4 - 

prominent citizens has been investigated to aiscover 
the secrets of his powerful physique, physical strength 
and endurance, his perfect health and wonderful achieve- 
ments. Almost every attribute has been traced to the 
Los Angeles School Curriculum. The following are the 
records as we find them: 

1. The Doctor, when handing John over to his Llother 
on the day that he came into this world, said, 
"ICrs. Smith, it certainly gives me great pleasure 
to hand over to you such a youngster. His phy- 
sique is as sound as a dollar and as free from 
structural or functional defect as the air. Ex- 
aminations have proven every tissue sound and 
every system of organs likewise. I know you well 
enough, Mrs. Smith, to say that I have the utmost 
confidence in your ability to do your part in 
teaching him the proper health habits as soon as 
he is able to understand." 

2. "John Smith - Vaccinated" appears on the school 
records. 

3. The school goes on record as stating that it had 
the cooperation of the parents in insisting on 
"right physical living" throughout the twenty-four 
hours of every day, seven days a week. 

4. The teacher^, under whose supervision John came 
daily, were well versed in Physical Education and 



erery opportunity in school was utilized in physi- 
cal training. 

5. The principles of: 

Ventilation, Lighting, Temperature, Physical 
Activity, Diversified physical Experience, 
Noon-day meal, etc.. 
were taught and their values emphasized. 

6. Records show yearly physical exajninations of John 
Smith, with recommendations as to how to correct 
certain weaknesses due to using certain sets of 
musolea too much amd other sets not enough. The 
Physical Director remembers John as one who was 
always eager and happy in doing muscular exercises 
and one who had a deep interest and skill in all 
major and. minor games. 

7. The notes which John took during his Senior year 
in High School in a course on Physical Education 
given hy the Physical Director shows that he was 
given the facts in support of life-long continuing 
habits of vigorous muscular exercise in such a 
manner that he was capable of understanding. 

8. A graphic chart, which was introduced by the 
Physical Director and kept by Johni shows how he 
kept check upon himself until habits, attitudes 
and understandings were thoroughly formed. 



9, A thoroueh e;ca::iination Jiaa been laade of John 

Smith, age Uxirty, with the following results: 
C haracteristicf^ and Abilities of John Smith . A^, e 30. 

1. A sound and well-proportioned pAysique . 

2. A body that is capable of a continuous maintained 
reservoir of vital enerz-y . physical stren^^th and 
enduranc e and posseseino; physical resiliency and 
adaptability. 

Ability to: 

3. Make food contribute maximum amount of nourishment ; 
keep the body mechanism properly oxY/^enated : util- 
ize muscular exercise as a life-long meajis of 
maintaining a high level of piiysical vitality. 

4. And disposition to engage witii pleasure and profit 
in a varied repertoire of ^ames i sj^orts, athletics , 
etc., and to engage in unspecialized productive 
labors. 

5. Employ set tin/?- up exercises . 

6. Carry one's self, to move and act with ease , grace , 
and precision . 

7. Make one's various inental and emotional states and 
activities contribute in maximum degree to one's 
physical well-being. 

8. Make one's sleep contribute in maximum measure to 
the development and maintenance of a high level 
of physical vitality. 



- 7 - 

^» Rel^^t physically and mentally at proper times and 
in proper ways. 

10. Protect one* 8 self from micro-organisms ; deal with 
them and their products effectively in case of 
attack. 

11. Take proper precautions against spread of disease 
in cases of illness in the household. 

12. Rightly control the factors involved in the main- 
tenajice of hody temperatures . 

13. Provide the most favorable conditions for the 
elimination from the tissues, organs and body in 
general of all harmful or needless substances and 
agents. 

14. Control one's relation to sunlight so as to secure 
maximum benefits therefrom. 

15. Maintain postures conducive to the best physical 
functioning. 

16. Secure that variety or diversity of physical ex- 
periences necessary for maximiun well-being. 

17. Maintain that proper balance between excessive 
regularity and an excessive Irregularity which 
is necessaury for maximum physical well-being. 

18. T7ork hard for a long period of time and still 
keep physically fit. 

19. Draw up an individuaa program of work , play , 
rest, sleep , meals , etc., best suited for one's 
physical nature and capacity; and currently keep 



- 8 . 

it adapted to the ever changing conditione of 
one* 8 situation* 

20. Develop and maintain, aa well as conditione per- 
mit, the beauty of the physique. 

21. Protect one's self from preventable accidents . 

22. Deal with conditions produced by many kinds of 
common accidents . 

23. Protect from dust, smoke, noxious gases, etc. 

24. Care for: teeth, eyes, nose, ear, throat, skin, 
hair, scalp, nails and feet. 

25. Keep heart and blood vessels in normal working 
condition. 

26. Control sejo - functions In the interest of physi- 
cal and social well-being. 

27. Keep reasonably well informed, in the decree to 
be expected of a layman, as to the discoveries 
of science in the fields of health conservation 
and promotion. 

28. Recognize the symptoms of common ailments in 
their incipient stages. 

29. Co-operate effectively within one's occupation- 
al field in providing wholesome working con- 
ditions. 

30. Perform one's civic functions in co-operation 
with and in support amd control of all public 
agencies engaged in promoting the general 
physical welfare. 



- 9 - 
B. The Ideal Becomes a Policeman. 
Due to the fact that John Smith has been a very 
efiicient and successful policeman aiid that he possesoes 
the desirahle pliyoical abilities, the Committee recom-^ends 
that he be accepted as the Ideal Policexaan. 

B. The Policeman aa He is To-day. 
In tlae preceding section wic have set ur. an ideal 
policeman. Using the standard as set for t^e ideal police- 
man, we will now attempt to measure our policeman of to- 
day. "Out of 1,395 men passing the examination for Police 
in Chicago in 1916-17 and 19, 35 had attended high school, 
10 college and 1,352 Just common school." ^ Can tiiis ideal 
be reached by one having only the common school training? 
An average policeman of Chicago has been chosen as the in- 
dividual to be tested. Tfe will call this man "Jim Jones", 
an officer of the Chicago Police Department. The test 
shows the following results: 

1. Physique. Protruding abdomen, overweight. 

2. Troubled with colds showing low vitality, great 
effort to run 100 yards, and not able to chin 
more than several times, indicating lack of 
endurajice and strength. 

3. Digestion poor due to constant violation of 
recognized rules of healtli. Peeling tired most 
of the tiiae, showing condition of fatigue and 
lack of vigorous exercise. 

1. Annual Report of civil Service Comn. City of Chicago. 



- 10 - 

4. Eas the ability to engage In sports and ath- 
letics, but allows other things to distract 
from these profitable and pleasurable actiritieg. 

5. Does not have the ability to employ setting-up 
exercises. 

6. Rather uncertain in morements that are a trifle 
out of order of the regular habits. 

7. Does not hare full control over his temper. 

8. Hot able to get the proper sleep because of the 
irregular hours of work and having to sleep in 
the day time much of the time. 

9. Hot much trouble relaxing either physically nor 
mentally. 

10. Is not familiar with the modem methods of pro- 
tecting against micro-organisms. 

11. Does not take all precaution against the spread 
of disease. 

12. Is fairly capable of controlling body tempera- 
ture. 

13. Elimination: Constipated very often, condition 
of over- fatigue indicating that elimination of 
needless by-products of oxidation which takes 
place in the tissue is not thorough. 

14. Gets plenty of sunlight when on day duty, but 
].aok of -it when on night duty which amounts to 
about eight months a year. 



-Il- 
ls, Does not always maintain proper posture; likes 
to lean on something when standing up. 

16. Physical experience somewhat divers if ied, but 
not as much as desirable. 

17. The nature of the work with its irregularity 
of living will not permit a proper balance be- 
tween excessive regularity and excessive irreg- 
ularity which is necessary for maximum physical 
well-being, 

18. His physical condition will not peimit hard 
physical work for a long period of time. 

19. The program which he set for himself, or the 
groove into which he fits, is rather narrow for 
one who has his opportunity for broadening. 
Play is given no place in the program. The pro- 
gram consists mainly of: work, rest, meals and 
entertainment. 

20. Does not have the ability to maintain the phy- 
sique which he had when he entered the force. 

21. Is alert enough to prevent preventable accidents. 

22. Is capable of dealing with conditions produced 
by some kinds of comruon accidents. 

23. Has sense enough to keep out of dust, smoke, 
noxious gases, etc. 

24. Not very- careful in the care of the teeth. Does 
not know the value of regular physical examina- 



- 12 - 

tlons in keeping the eyesi noeet Bar, throat, 
akin and feet in healthy condition. Capable of 
keeping hair and scalp in good condition. 

25. Does not realize the importance in keeping the 
heart and blood vessela in normal working con- 
ditions. 

26. Rather loose in sex matters, with little thought 
to social well-being. 

27. Not well informed as to the discoveries of science 
in the field of health conservation and promotion 
as one who is supposed to enforce certain health 
measures should be. 

23. Hot capable of recognizing the symptoms of all 
common ailments in their recipient stages. 

29. He co-operates effectively In trying to provide 
wholesome working conditions. 

30. Not greatly interested in the general physical 
welfare of the community. 

In comparing Jim Jones with John Smith, we find 
that the latter falls short by far of the standards set 
by tiie former. 

It is not the intention of the writer to destruct- 
ively criticise the policeman of to-day, but ratner to 
show what aeems to be his weak points so that in building 
a program of physical education due emphasis might be 
placed on the development auid maintenance of certain abil- 
ities and characteristics. 



. 13 - 

It 1b an attempt to discover the forces or energiee 
that are threatening the policeiiian. Dewey * in "Democracy and 
Education" gives os a very enlightening view of Education 
as a means of securing better control over the energies that 
would otherwise use up the being* "The most notable dis- 
tinction between living and insnimate beings is that the 
former m:xintain themselves by renewal. A stone wnen struct 
resists. If its resistance is greater than the force of 
the blow struck, it reinains outwardly unchanged. OtherwisOf 
it is shattered into smaller bits. Hever does the stone 
att^apt to react in such a way that it may maintain itself 
against the blow, much less so as to render the blow a con- 
tributing factor to its own continued action. While the 
living thing may easily be crushed by superior force, it 
none the less tties to turn the energy which acts upon it 
into mesuis of its own further existence. If it cannot do 
so, it does not split into smaller pieces (at least in. .the 
higher forms of life) , but loses its identity as a living 
thing. As long as it endures, it struggles to use surround- 
ing energies in its own behalf. It uses light, air, mois- 
ture and the material of the soil. To say that it uses tnem 
is to say that it turns them into means of its own conser- 
vation. As long as it is growing the energy it expends in 
thus turning the environment to account is more than ojm- 
pensated for by tlie return it gets. In this sense of 
thinking, we ;aight say that education is a means of se- 
curing better control over the energies that would other- 



- 14 - 

wiae use up the being." 

What are these forces or energies that are threat- 
ening human beings? How can the policeman maintain himself 
against the blows, and turn them into contributing factors 
for his own continued action? 

The answer to the first question has been attempted 
in this chapter, while the second will be discussed in 
the following chapters. ,;- . 



- 15 



OCCUPATIOH AHD HEALTH. 
1. Hygiene and Health. 

Before oonsidering the relation of Occupation to 
Health, It would be well to get a sound understanding of 
Health. 

Hygiene is a term used to denote the science, art, 
theory, and practice of the preservation and promotion of 
human health. The aim of hygiene is to make growth more 
perfect, life more vigorous, decay less rapid and death 
more remote. 

Health is that condition of the body in which it 
functions normally and without manifestation of discomfort. 

Disease is the imperfect performance of one or more 
bodily functions because of injured structure of corres- 
ponding organs, resulting in the manifestation of dis- 
comfort. ^ 

2. Causes of Disease. 
Some of the principle causes of disease, as pre- 
sented by Bergy in "Principles of Hygiene", are, as 
follows : 

1. Exposure to heat and cold. 

2. Prolonged absence of sunlight. 

3. Deficient ventilation. 

4. Excessive kinds of food or drink. 

1. Class Notes - Dr. Reed , University of Chicago. 
(Probably from Bergy - "Principles of Hygiene") 



16- 



5, Continued use of a diet which is deficient in 

one or more food elements which enter into 
the composition of the body. 

6. Abnormal positions maintained over period of 

time* 
?• Inefficient wearing apparel for parte of the 
body. 

8. Deprivation of food or drink. 

9. Age. 

10. Sez. 

11. Heredity. 
12. 

(a) Temperament. 

(b) External Appearsuice. 

(c) Idiosyncrasies. 

13. Race. 

14. Conjugal Conditions. 

15. Environmental Conditions: 

(a) Overcrowding. 

(b) Privation. 

(c) Tater Supply. 

(d) Drainage. 

(e) Occupation. 

(f) Dampness of soil ajid climate. 

The causes of disease Just mentioned are called 
the "Predisposing Causes". They aire the causes with which 



- 17 - 

we are more apt to deal, and for this reason no time will 
be demoted to the "Exciting Causes*** 

"In our opinion nearly all disease is traceable 
in its ultimate causation to the individual, to the Tiola- 
tion, through lack of understanding or wilfullness, of 
well-recognized laws of health or hygiene; refusal to use 
the facilities for correction of physical conditions which 
will become disabling; excess in personal conduct; and a 
most important factor, the inherent limitations of vitality 
which vary in Individuals from those merely able to keep 
alive the spark of life to those who are of the most robust 
and vigorous type." •'■ 

"The foregoing is not intended as a complete state- 
ment of the causes of disease and responsibility therefor, 
but merely to illustrate what is indubitably the fact that 
causation or responsibility for disease cannot be ration- 
ally assigned on the basis of a classification of diseases, 
with the possible exception of diseases to wnich workers 
in an occupation are exposed and which are not found among 
those who are not ent^aged in that occupation." 2 

The writer has no facts which would brand £iny 
disease, or diseases, as being found among policemen more 
than any other group of workers. However, he has observed 
in his study of the Police of Chicago that there are a 
certain number of common weaknesses among the Police. 

1. 2. Illinois Health Insurance Report - pp. 156. 



- 18 - 

The policeman is on his feet the greater part of the 
day. Many of them are overweight, and, besides carrying 
this excess weight, they hare their clubs, black-jack, re- 
volvers, cartridges, etc. to weight them down. 

McKenzie in "Exercise and Medicine*', pp. 371, gives 
us the following as an explanation of foot troubles. "The 
advantage of the upright position is somewhat offset by 
the frequency of deformities due to yielding of the struc- 
tures concerned with support. The body may yield at the 
spine which becomes bent auid distorted; at the knee-joints, 
which knock together; or at the arch of the foot, which 
becomes broken down and flattened, causing the deformity 
known as pes planus, flat-foot, everted foot or pronated 
foot." 

During the period of training the police for th« 
Police Field Day, the writer had it impressed upon his 
mind that the Police, as a group* have weakened arches or 
flat feet, 

3. Physical Handicaps of the Police. 

(a) Flat Feet. 

At one time or auiother, almost every man who was 
out for training for the Police Field Day from the 
Snglewood Station Track Team was hindered by pains in 
the feet. And these men were all the younger men of the 
Department. It would be safe to say that if the older 
men would have come out we would have found considerably 



- 19 - 

more of such foot trouble. This, then, may be put down 
as one common deformity, or weakness of the Polloe. 

(b) Over- Fatigue; Cause and Remedy. 

Tatigue is another condition found among Police. 
One of the reasons for this is lack of vigorous exercise. 
The physiological explanation of this is, as follows: 

"The incessant contraction of muscles, which goes 
on even when the body is apparently at rest, while it pro- 
duces only small amounts of fatigue- toxins, may result in 
even larger accumulation of these poisons in the muscles 
than active exercise, on account of the stai^nation of 
lymph and blood, both local Guid general." 

"Standing still or walking along leisurely then may 
be understood as producing a condition of fatigue. How- 
ever, the moment that active muscular movement of any sort 
begins, the whole body literally becomes the heart, the 
muscles by contracting pump out of themselves the blood 
and lymph and at the same time, by pressing upon the veins, 
drive the blood towards the heart." 

"Therefore, men who are not, in the ordinary accept- 
ation of the term, worked very hard, from the point of view 
of muscular energy, but are kept constantly moving about 
on their feet, as the policeman walks his beat or stands 
on the corner, will find their protection against over- 
fatigue and breakdown in the form of vigorous exercise. 
This exercise can be made very enjoyable as well as 



- 20 - 

beneficial." ^ 

The traffic officer, who atande in one spot, has a 
haurd and wearing exercise. One only has to try standing 
for a long period of time and he will realize it is exer- 
cise. The older physicist believed that the natural 
condition of matter was rest. Now we know tiiat it's natural 
state is in motion in a right line, ana that it will per- 
petually continue in this, unless forcibly brougiit to a 
stauid-still. Something the same curious reversal is true 
of muscle. It*s natural state is movement, not rest. 
Nature's real recuperator of muscular vigoe is not rest, 
but play, with ouch intervals of sleep as this brings. 

(c) Age and Weight; Influence on Longevity. 

"Life insurance experience has clearly shown that 
weight, especially in relation to age, is an important 
factor in influencing longevity. Except in the earlier 
ages of life, overweight (reckoned relatively to the 
average for that age) is a more unfavorable condition, in 
its influence on longevity, than underweight." 

"The lowest mortality is found among those who 
average, as a group, a few pounds over the average weight 
before the age of 35, and a few pounds under the average 
weight after 35. That is, aifter the age of 35, overweight 
is associated with an increasingly high death rate, and 
at middle life it becomes a real menace to health, either 
by reason of its mere presence as a ph^'sical handicap or 

1. Dr. Hutchinson - "Exercise and Health". 



- 21 - 

because of the faulty living habits that are often respon- 
sible for its development. After the age of 35 is reached, 
15 to 20 pounds over the average weight should prompt one 
to take careful measures for reducing weight." ^ 

Habits should be formed that will keep the weight 
down automatically, instead of relying upon intermittent 
attempts that are more than likely to fail. Mo matter how 
well one feels, one should take steps to keep out of the 
class that life insurance companies have found to be un- 
desirable as risks. 

Constant vigilance is necessary, yet it is worth 
while when one considers the inconvenience as well as the 
menace of obesity. 

(d) Sedentary Workers. 

The sedentary brain worker often gains weight with- 
out eating very much. What he really needs is exercise to 
use up the food, but if he will not exercise, then he 
should reduce his food even below the small amount on 
which he gains weight* 

(e) Fuel Intake vs. Obesity. 

A fat man requires less fuel in proportion to his 
weight than an ordinary man. Fat represents "dead weight*. 
The actual amount of muscle may be more (even less) than in 
another man who tips the scale at a lower figiire. As men 
grow older they tend to less and less muscular exertion and 
yet their appetites often continue keen, so that they keep 
1. Pisher and Fisk - "How to Live", pp. 30. 



- 22 - 

up eating habits formed In more actiye years, with the 
result that they steadily take in more fuel than they use 
up) and gradually Increase in weight* Too much fat is a 
disauiTantaige, as it is apt to interfere wiUi the healthy 
play of the muscles, causing them to deteriorate and laying 
the foundation for troubles with the heart. Bxcessively fat 
people also seem predisposed toward gout and obesity. It is 
usually much easier to keep the weight from becoming excess- 
ive than to reduce fat after it has been stored. Hence, it 
should be borne in mind that persistent gain in weight In a 
healthy person means that he has been overeating and he 
should make consistent effort to lower his food intake. In- 
creasing exercise will help to burn fat, but it is likely 
to stimulate the appetite, so that accurate measurement and 
systematic limilation of the fuel value of the diet is 
necessary, 

A chief ajid common error of diet consists In using 
too much protein. Instead of ten calories out of every one 
hundred, many Americans use something like twenty to thirty, 
more than double what is known as ample. This excessive 
proportion of protein is usually doe Ux the extensive use 
of meat and eggs, although precisely the same dietetic error 
is sometimes committed by tiie excessive use of other high- 
protein foods, such as fish, shell fish, foul, clieese, ^qsjib 
and peas, or even in exceptional cases, by the use of foods 
less high in protein when not offset by any other foods. 



- 23 - 

(f) Age and Activity. 

"Generally speaJcing" , says Arnold Bennett, "happi- 
neas is the oonaequence of health, not of righteous living 
and a clear conscience." "Sxcept in the middle of the night, 
it is not easy to be honest with yourself." "The man of 
middle-age has a tremendous advantage over the youth in any 
crisis. He has experience." . ^ 

Every policeman should want to keep young, without 
being ridiculous as an adherent of eternal-youth. A great 
many of the police of Chicago are in their middle an^ea when 
there are various changes in the human machine and the work 
which it can perform. Tlierefore, the onset of middle age 
is a matter which deserves our serious attention if we wish 
to make the best of life; for it is not enough to make the 
best of one-half of life; we should make the beet of both 
halves. 

No amount of will power and pretense will obviate 
the inescapable effects of time. Time always wins, but it 
wins least against those who treat it respectfully and Bin- 
cerely, and most against those who scorn it. Now this is 
not an argument in favor of an early surrender to time. A 
great many individuals fall too easily suid there are a 
sufficient number of such individuals in the Police Depart- 
ment. They allow their habits to become fixed. According 
to statements of a number of middle-aged officers they have 
surrendered to Father Time and are in their early forties. 



24 



They put in their working hours policing their beat, go 
home for Lieals, sit around and read the paper, smoking 
their pipe of peace, seeing occasional shows and sleeping 
the balance of the time. They become hypochondriacal and 
generally fussy; they seize upon the distant prospect of 
age as an excuse for partially abandoning the gieat struggle. 
It is Just as foolish to sit back and wait for old age as it 
is to seek the youth which is physically beyond your power. 
In this mighty affair of the merging of one age into another, 
common sense and moderation should preside over the pre- 
ceedings. 

The officials in charge of the Police Field Day did 
not ask an officer whj had been in service for ten or fif- 
teen years to compete with the officers who had only been 
in service three or four years or less. On the other hand, 
they did not say to these older men "you are too old to 
compete in these games - physical activities are for the 
young men only". Special events were put on the program to 
encourage these middle-aged men to get into the games. 
Greater value should be placed upon these special events 
and careful study made of the physical capacity of an aver- 
age middle-aged man. As Arnold Bennett has said, "It 
follows that a man who (as the French say) is 'between two 
ages' , owes himself a serious duty: namely, to take stock 
of himself, to find, out as well as he can wxiat his resources 
and prospects are worth. This stock tsUting should be two- 



- 25 - 

fold, physical and mental, (I use the word 'mental* for 
want of a better word, and use it in the broadest sense). 
The basis of the total individual is physical. The physical 
and mental react on each other. But the physical has more 
effect on the mental than the mental on the physical." ^ 

4. Preoccupation. 
Harry Emerson Fosdick, in an article (Twelve Tests 
of Character) written for one of our most popular magazines 
(The Ladies' Home Journal), discusses "Preoccupation" and 
says that it is the most popular form of failure. "The 
basic facts about us which make such promiscuous preoccupa- 
tion ruinous lie here; Our life's time and our life's 
energy are limited, "^e are like street cars; we caji hold 
our quota and no more. Then all seats are taken, the 
standing room absorbed, and the "Car Full" sign put up in 
front, whoever hails us next, though he be the most prom- 
inent citizen in the community, he be passed by. It never 
was so easy to fail in this particular way as it is to-day. 
There may have been times when life was sluggish and folks 
could drift listlessly through apatnetic years. But to- 
day the currents of life are swift and stimulating, the 
demands of life are absorbing. There are more things to 
to than we ever shall get done; there are more books to 
read than we can ever look at; tliere are more avenues of 
enjoyment than we ever shall find time to travel. Life 
appeals to us from innumerable directions, crying "Attend 



- 26 - 

to me here* I In consequence, we are continually tempted 
to dabble. We liter our lives with indiscriminate 
preoccupation. " 

One of the most difficult problems that I have found 
in dealing with the police is that they are preoccupied. 
They feel that there are more important things to be done 
than to give time to the maintenance of pxiysical fitness. 
Many of them, or we might say most of them are indifferent 
as to physical recreation. The comrhon expression, "that 
athle.tic stuff and exercise is a good thing for these new 
men tliat we just got on t/ie force" I have neard from many 
of the older men in the departinent who will tell you that 
they themselves do not have the time nor tne energy after 
walking their beat. 

One day I stepped in to a certain station and asked 
the desk Sargeant if I could see the Captain. He rather 
emphatically informed me that the captain was busy and 
asked me to state my business. I told him who I was and 
that I was trying to cet the men interested in atnletics, 
gy.-i]nastics, etc. The gruff reply that "You might be more 
successful if you were trying to promote a beer drinking 
contest" did not discourage me from waiting to see the 
Captain who very courteously listened to my plans and 
became very entroisiastic over the possibilities of getting 
something started that would improve the physical efficiency 
of the men. This Captain and his staff are co-operating 
now in as many ways as it is possible to put across a 



- 27 - 

physical procram. 

Nevertheless, we can do notlriing to amount to much 
unless we make the men see that their physical condition 
is one of the primary situations demanding their attention. 

5. Health Education. 

(a) Understanding Essential to Co-operation, 
"People must know why, and when once they understand 

they can be depended upon to give full measure of earnest, 
honest co-operation in the enforcement of health laws." 

(b) Police Protection Acainst Disease. 

After reading the above statement of Dr. Robertson, 
and reminding ourselves of the fact that one of the chief 
functions of the Police is to protect the life of the 
public, we might ask ourselves whether our police are 
sufficiently informed to carry out this function to the 
extent of protecting the public life by protection against 
disease. The more Health Education that can be given to 
the police, the more capable will they be in co-operating 
with the Department of Health. Besides having more legis- 
lation for the preservation of health, it would be wise 
ti give all police a thorough course in Health Education. 
(c) Personal and Commiinity Hygiene. 
Dr. Robertson divides Educational Health work into 
two classes; "first, that which concerns itself with giving 
information to the public along the lines of personal 

1. John Dill Robertson, M.D. - Home Journal of Health and 

Sanitation, pp. 13 



- 28 - 

hygiene and personal conduct of the individual: the second 
class consists in efforts directed to arouse a com;nunity to 
the need for special legislation and the securing of an 
adequate budget to enforce such legislation."! 

"It has been said, and well said, that when you can 
get a community to understand the need for a certain law 
and a "budcet to enforce the law, you have taken a great step 
towards eliminating the evil toward which it was directed. 
\7hen this is done, then comes the great campaign of educa- 
tion by means of the law which has been created. This 
requires a campaign of an entirely different type than that 
required for the first kind of education. It requires an 
executive who understands the law, knows his powers, and 
who will energetically enforce the law without fear, with- 
out political bias, alike against friend and foe." 2 

It also requires a staff and force of police who 
likewise understand the laws. 



1. 2. John Dill Robertson, M.D. - Home Journal of Health 
and Sanitation, 



- 29 - 
IV, POLICE FUNCTION. 

1. Police Function Defined. 

To the police are committed tiie enforcenent of law, 
maintenance of order, and the preaenration of the public 
peace. The protection of life and the security of prop- 
erty larcely depend upon the zeal and fidelity with which 
they discharge tiieir duties. It is esaential, therefore, 
that they should possess discretion, integrity, activity, 
sobriety, fearlessness and decision. 

2. Ancient Police. 

There are traces of police, or something analgous 
to it, in Athens, Corinth and Ephesus. In Rome the duties 
of the policeman seem to have been shared by several 
classes of officials; the lie tor arrested criminals and 
conducted them into court, and the inspectors, subprefccts 
and other officers, either personally or by their subord- 
inates, perfonned most of the civil duties now devolving 
on the police. 

3. Despotic Government, 

In despotic governments, the police have exercised 
important and often oppressive functions. Its beneficial 
action in sanitary matters, in preventing and detecting 
frauds, larcenies and petty crimes, and in reformation 
of juvenile offenders is of recent date even in those 



- 30 - 

countries where the system has been longest and most 
completely organized. 

4. Relation of Police to Public. 

In no two countries is the conception of the police 
in its relation to the public exactly the sane. In Great 
Britain, the police are the servants of tlie community. 
They are the civil eiaployees whose primary duty is preser- 
vation of public security. In execution of this duty tiiey 
have no power not possessed by any otr.er citizen. In sharp 
contrast with this is the Continental theory, which evolved 
from the necessity of autocratic government makes the police 
force the strong arm of the ruling class. The police poss- 
ess powers greatly exceeding those of the citizens. 

5. Function of Police in United States. 



In the United States the legislative bodies 
somewhat confused at times regarding the purpose and func- 
tion of the police. In one community they limit police 
activities to the protection of life and property and the 
regulation of traffic, while in others every state and 
municipal function is assigned to the police. "Our 
duties have been drafted by lawmakers and theorists with- 
out seeking aid from expert policemen primarily because 
the policeman himself has never been altogether clear on 
the subject. Therefore, the time is ripe for police 



- 31 - 

executiTes to discuBs this fundamental question and prepare 
8 form which may be helpful to lecialators in the future." 1 

6. First Modem Police Force. 

The first modem police force of the world was es- 
tablished in London, England, in 1821, by the passa^^e of the 
celebrated Peel Act, which established a constabulary force 
for the city under commissioners appointed by the Crown. 
The act provided for a thoroughly organized and disciplined 
corps of trained men, a regular day and night patrol, and 
force of reserves to be stationed at the police headquarters. 

7. Meaning of Term "Police". 

"The term "Police" in the modem sense of the word is 
defined as that part of the state administration which is 
concerned primarily with the preservation of the peace and 
the prevention and detection of crime in urban coimamities." 

"Our word "Police" comes to us from the Latin word 
"politia" and the Greek word "politeia" meaning government 
and citizenship. In its broader significajice, the term 
means the whole internal administration of a state less 
the judicial power. In a more restricted sense, and yet 
not as restricted as the term is used in the modern sense, 
the term denotes that sphere of government activity which 
has to do with the maintenance of the public peace, order, 
and security, and the protection of the public health 



- 32 - 

and morale." 1 

8. Real Opportunity for Public Service. 

In a comparlBon of tiie definitions of the modem 
police and the one just described above, we find that in 
the latter sense the policeman is the protector of public 
health and morale. To be sure, we have departments of 
Health to look after the public health, and the Churcr.es 
to keep up the morale of the community, BUT - tae policeman 
patrolling his beat can do much for public health and morale 
of the cominiinity which the Board of Health and the Church 
cannot touch. That is, providing the policeman himself is 
trained for such duties and had something done for him to 
keep up his own morale, which would place him in the minds 
of citizens as someone to be looked up to pJnysically, 
mentally, morally and intellectually. This does not necess- 
arily mean that we must have college graduates for the 
police force, although this would do much to bring about a 
higher standing, but it means that the policeman must not 
be allowed to go to seed after he gets on the force. Dur- 
ing the past six months, conversations with several hun- 
dred policemen of Chicago on various matters pertaining to 
their experiences show opportunities for doing good wasted 
because of indifferonoe or ignorance on their part as to 
the good of public health and morale. Therefore, one of 
the first things that must be done to give us an efficient 

1. New International Encyclopedia. 



- 33 - 

Police Department that will serve the coxmuunity in tirie 
purpose for which it was originally intended, is to put 
tiie policeman on a higher scale and educate and train him 
and raise his own morale above or at least on tiie level with 
that of the averace citizen. 



- 34 - 
V. PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES OF THE POLICKLiAN. 
1. Specific Abilities; Cases Where Needed. 

A study of the police work of Chicago rereals the 
policeman in many situations tixat call for physical and 
mental alertness, agility, strength of muscles, quick 
judgment, good eye- sight and hearing, and resiliency. A 
few incidents that will bear out this fact may be shovm 
In the following news itons: 

"Policeman Has Narrow Escape from Death. Patrolman 
Floyd L. Arnold, who was target for hold-up men, and his 
cap showing hole made by one of txicir bullets." (This 
article appeared with the photograph of patrolman and cap 
in the Chicago Tribune, February 19, 1923.) 

On the same page appeared the photograph of Patrol- 
man John T. McLaughlin who waa beaten up by five men. 

About a week previous to the printing of the above 
articles, the following account appeared in the same paper; 

"Prisoner Strikes Down, Injures Police Sargeabt. 
Sgt. John Kehoe of the \7abash Ave. Station sustained a 
possible skull fracture yesterday as the result of an 
attack upon him by John O'Donnell, 22 years old, 11 East 
47th St., a prisoner whom he was questioning. Kehoe had 
arrested O'Donnell as a suspect in a shooting affray. At 
the station O'Donnell suddenly struck him to the floor." 

In these three situations, we find tlxe policeman 



- 35 - 

with the odds against him in every case. In the first case 
no details are furnished as to the manner of attack, but we 
can use our imagination to some extent and see how the first 
two policemen may hare been attack. The writer having had 
the exi^erience of being "stuck up" or "held up" in Chicago 
has some idea of what this first officer may have experienced. 
This officer may iiave surprised the hold-up man at work and, 
before he knew what he had run into, he had a bullet hole 
in his hat. A hold-up man knows that an officer is armed 
and tiiat unless he beats the officer on the draw he is going 
to be taken dead or alive. Hold-up men will shoot; so will 
a policeman. The writer was present several years ago at 
the inquest of Leo V/ilde, a hold-up man, who tried to hold 
up a policeman walking the street in his plain clothes. In 
this case, the policeman beat Wilde on the draw and his aim 
was true for Wilde died a few hours later. At the inquest 
there were between five and eight persons who had been 
victims of tiiis one man. One had been shot, and another 
beaten over the head. One thing a policeman must know and 
that is how to shoot and how to draw drickly. In this he 
must have good sight, alertness and agility. 

It would seem tliat a policeman attacked by five men 
would not have much chance if he were taken unaware, which 
must have been the case of Patrolman McLauchlin. But a 
patrolman, armed and equipped as he is, could put up a hard 
fight against five men. This, however, would require 



- 36 - 

courage to face oddsi muQcular strength, agility and en- 
durance. 

The case of Sot. Kehoe being struck down by a prisoner 
while questioning him, demonstrates that an officer must be 
mentally and physically alert euid ready to defend himself 
and subside a prisoner. 

Many other instances could be cited ti show that the 
policeman must have the previously mentioned characteristics 
and abilities. 

The act of performing his duties may require a police- 
man to use any or all of the following phases of physical 
activities: Talking, Running, Jumping, Vaulting, Lifting, 
Pushing, Pulling, Holding, Tussling, Striking, Dodging, 
Throwing, Shooting and Swimming. 

The difficult part of the profession is that a po- 
liceman never knows when he is going to need any of these 
abilities. He is like the soldier who must keep prepared 
to meet emergencies. A soldier in time of peace must keep 
up his training. Many of them train for years and neYer 
have the opportunity of putting their skill into actual 
practice of mortal combat. But during the soldier's 
training, like situations to mortal combat are created in 
the form of sham battles, etc., to keep up interest and to 
place the men in positions where they will do the things 
they would do in a real battle. One difference between 
the soldier and the policeman is that the former usually 
knows his enemy before he sees him, but the latter in 



- 37 - 

some cases never sees his enemy, and in many cases he le 
at the disadvantage of not knowing his enemy until he has 

shown some sign of a fight. 

2. Influence smd Effect of these Activities. 

In analyzing the activities in which a policeman 
participates while performing his duties we begin to get 
down to the fundamental abilities which he should possess. 

(a) Talking. 

This is the most common foim of activity in which 
the patrolman participates. 

'.Talking is defined as* "to proceed (at a slower or 
faster rate) without running or lifting one foot entirely 
before the other is set down". The patrolman in policing 
his beat does not walk at a very brisk gait as a rule, but 
dust saunters along keeping his eyes open. It would be 
impossible for him to walk vigorously all the time that he 
is on duty, nevertheless there is a great opportunity for 
wholesome, pleasant and beneficial exercise open to tiie 
policeman if he will only partake of it. One authority 
on walking states that there are few exercises for the 
general run of men any better Uian walking, - "walking 
across country, at a natural cait, head up, chest out, 
toes turned out and arms swinging easily at the sides. 
Such walking is natural and healthful**. The muscles that 
require the greatest development for walking are the 



- 38 - 

abdominal and the forethigh muscles. 

Atliletic or Heel-and-Toe Walking: Competitive 
walking is not as popular aa in former years. One author 
states that this is probably due to the necessity for ex^- 
agcerated stride, heel pounding, toeing in, etc. that goes 
with this type of walking. "It is not harmful, of course, 
because it is exercise, and all noruial exercise ie bene- 
ficial." 

Rules for fair "Heel-and-Toe walk: 
1. Hip motion; just enough twist or curve given to 
bring the feet alternately in one straigl-'t line. 
2» Leg action; below the waist shoot the leg out in 
a straight, clean drive to its full, natural 
limit: hip locked, knee locked, and free play 
given the foot. 
3* Foot action; the heel of the foot strikes the 
ground first. As the left leg is swung in front 
of the right, the foot of the right comes down 
flat, then, as it is raised to toe position, the 
heel of the left strikes the ground and in turn 
takes the weight of the body. 

4. Carriage of the body; to be perfectly upright, 
with the center of gravity on the heels, the 
head all the time traveling in a straight line. 

5. Knee action; knee to be straight at first and 
afterwards locked. 



- 39 - 

"Observe the vigorous man as iae walks: tue stride 
is long and free; trie feet come surely and firmly to the 
ground, vrithout twist or jar, toes pointed straight ahead: 
the pelvis swaying easily, carries an erect body; the arms 
awing in alternate rhythm with the legs; tne head is borne 
free over all; breathing is deep and long; the blood courses 
strongly. Every member siiares in the activity." 

(b) Running. 

In running the whole muscular system, especially the 
thighs smd calves are the chief regions of the body used. 
The demand upon the nervous system for control is extreme 
in the 100 asid 200 yard dashes, but becomes less with an 
increase in the distance of the race. On the other hand, 
the influence on pulse, blood pressure and respiration are 
extreme in the long runs and less for tiie short dashes. 
Speed, alertness, and endurance are the physical char-xcter- 
istics needed in running. The best age for the practice of 
running is from 19 to 30. Running 100 to 200 yards is a 
typical exercise of effort while longer distances are a 
severe test on the heart and lungs. 

The policeman is never called upon these days to nui 
a long distajice but tiiere are many occasions when he is 
called upon to sprint a short distance and the faster he 
can do it, the better it is for the public and for him. 
ItcKenzie says that the best time to practice ninning is 
between tlie ages of 19 and 30, but he does not say that a 



,ji«*:im > ^.,,; nx .iij 






, ,.tv..i:.,;: [..) 



Uv -'■>■ <■•■ J. 



; ..,. , -i^;' ;.: ... ,i: 



i- !. - J ;;.,;!.. :l.:.ij.. 



- 40 - 

man over 30 should not rion. Running should be a part of 
every policeman's exercise, whether it be 50 yards or more, 
the distance to depend upon the man's ae;e. However, the 
fact reniains tiiat an elderly policeman may have just as 
much need for running in an emergency as a younger one, 
and that the laws of nature csmnot be neglected. Unless a 
middle-aged policeman has been practicing some form of 
exercise that will keep his heart, lungs and muscles prop- 
erly toned to meet the emergency when it comes, he is liable 
to meet with trouble when he tries to do some violent exer- 
cise. UcKenzie says, "It is in those unprepared for violent 
exercise, smd especially when approaching middle life, that 
dsinger of heart strain is most imminent." "A heart in a 
state of physiolic hypertrophy (due to athletics) contains 
a reserve power wnich, while not needed under ordinary 
conditions, becomes of the greatest importance at times of 
prolonged severe muscular exertion. Athletic training thus 
becomes a process of building the heart up in size, capacity 
and efficiency for the special purpose in view." ^ 

At present there is no training given to the police 
to help keep them or to encourage them in keeping the vital 
organs in shape to meet the emergency. However, the Police 
Field Day held last September in Chicago is a step in the 
right direction but is only a short step and will avail 
nothing unless more steps are taken in the same direction. 



•dmO 




21.1 


24.3-9 


47. 


55.2-5 


1.51.3 


2.23 


9.9 





- 41 - 

Distance and time of running various races: 
Distance Pair Time Good Time Record Time Chicago Police ^c 
100 yds. 12 8 10.4 
220 " 26 24 
440 " 60 54 
880 " 2.15 2.5 
Mile 14. 10.30 
X - Time of races - Police Field Day, 1922. 

(c) Jumping. 

In Jumping, the thighs, calves, back and shoulders 
are the chief regions of the body involved. The higia jump 
demands more nerve control than does tlie broad jump. The 
influence on pulse, blood pressure and respiration is slight 
in both types of jumps, and speed and a^^ility tiie physical 
characteristics needed when the jump is taken witli a run. 
Without the run only agility is needed. These events are 
best for practice between the ages of 14 and 25 years. 

The high jump is one of the tests which a man must 
pass before he can become a policeman. The occasions when 
a policeman is called upon to jump either high or broad do 
not come very often, but the ability may be used to great 
advantage when pursuing criminals who usually put as many 
obstacles between the officers and. themselves as possible. 

In the loinning broad jump, 18 ft. is a fair jump, 
20 ft. good, and 24 ft. 11-5/8 inches the record. 

In the nmning high jump, 5 ft. is fair, 5 ft. 6 



- 42 - 

inches good, and the record 6 ft. 7 inches. 

According to the records for tne Police Field Day, 
the beat broad jump waa 20 ft, 2 inches, and the best high 
jump 5 feet. 

(d) Vaulting. 

There are various types of vaulting, and among them 
pole vaulting and fence vaulting. In either case, the body 
is raised by the arms and lifted over the bar. The fence 
vault is the type of vault that a policeman is apt to be 
called upon to use in pursuit. It is very comiaon to near 
of a policeman jumping fences in aui effort to catch a 
criminal. 

The forearm, arms, shoulders, abdomen, thighs and 
legs are the chief parts of the body ussd in vaulting. In 
pole vaulting, the demand upon the nerve control is extreme, 
while in fence vaulting it is considerably less. The in- 
fluence of either vault on the pulse, blood pressure and 
respiration is slight. The physical characteristics needed 
for the practicing of this event are agility and strength. 

(e) Lifting. 

In lifting, the muscles of the back, shoulders, arms 
and thighs are used. The demand upon the nerve control 
and the influence on the pulse, blood pressizre and respira- 
tion is slight. The practice of lifting develops strength. 

The policeman may be called upon to lift persons 
from the ground, for example, lifting a heavy person on a 
stretcher into an ambulance or patrol. In cases of acci- 



- 43 - 

dents, he often has the occasion of lifting heavy objecto 
when someone is pinned underneath. Vhlle such cases aee 
rare, yet a policeman who is able to do these things In an 
emergency is doubly valuable. 

(f) Pushing, 

Pushing involves the muscles of the extensors of the 
arms, chest, back, abdomen and thighs. The nerve control 
required is slight, and the degree to which the pulse, 
blood pressure and respiration are effected depends upon 
the nature of the pushing. It is used by policemen in 
keeping back crowds, pusliing open doors in raids, auid some- 
times pushing unwilling captives into patrol or cells. 

(g) Pulling. 

Pulling chiefly involves the flexors of tne anas, 
shoulders, beck and thighs. The nerve control required is 
slight, and the effect upon pulse, blood pressure and 
respiration is extreme when the pulling is hard and steady. 
Rowing a boat Is a form of pulling, and policemen ought to 
know how to row, particularly if they ape working near a 
body of water. There are times when a policeman must pull 
his prisoner to the box to send in a call, or pull a 
dangerous weapon from a person, either sane or insane. 

(h) Tussling, 

Another word which might be used here is wrestling. 
Sometimes a tussle may be as strenuous as a Trrestling match. 
Therefore, they will be spoken of as one suid the same. 



. 44 . 

The whole muscular system, especially the neck» back, armsi 
shoulders and abdomen are tlie chief regions of the body 
involved. The nerve control required is extreme and the 
effect on pulse, blood pressure and respiration is i^reat. 
Strength, endurance, agility, speed and courage are the 
physical characteristics needed. 

(i) Striking and Dodging, 

These are two movements which constitute the chief 
part of boxing. There are times when an officer cannot use 
his side-arms and must rely upon his hands to subdue the 
law breaker. In a case like this, striking and dodging, 
or boxing, of a serious nature is what actually takes 
place. In doing this, the chief parts of the body used are 
the forearms, arms, shoulders and back. The demand upon 
nerve control is extreme and the effect upon the pulse, 
blood pressure and respiration is great. The physical 
characteristics needed are alertness, agility, strength 
and courage. 

(j) Throwing. 

Throwing the club is sometimes necessary. Among 
the early police, this was considered quite an art and lots 
of time was devoted to this practice. However, to-day it 
is not as popular. It is a means of stopping the culprit 
without seriously injuring him. Anoth-r activity that 
involves throwing is that of giving aid to a drowning 
person by means of throwing out a life bupy. The Park 



- 45 - 

police especially should be able to do this. There axe 
here two kinds of tlirows; the first overhand, and the latter 
underhand. In throwing the club, the chief parts used are 
the forearm, arm and shoulder. In throwing the life buoy 
the arms, should and back are used. The nerve control is 
great and the effect of t.jowing on the pulse, blood pressure 
and respiration is moderate. The physical characteristics 
needed are accuracy and speed. 

(k) Shooting. 

Shooting is needed almost every day by some police- 
mfiin in Chicaigo. "^n^en shooting is taken as an activity by 
itself, such as target shooting, the whole muscular system 
is involved moderately, while the arms, flexors and all 
forearm are chiefly involved. The nervous control required 
is extreme and the effect on pjilse, blood pressure and 
respiration is slight. Accuracy is needed most. However, 
when the drawing of tlie revolver is taken into account the 
speed with which it is drawn may determine whether the 
policeman is to shoot or to be shot. 



46 



VI. SELECTING THE PATROUllAN. 

The selection of Patrolman is very similar tinrough- 
out the United States. A oompariaon of the Cnica^o and 
New Yotk exarainations show xoarked similarity. It is, 
therexore, that in dealing witli the subject in this thesis 
no great distinction will be made as to v/here the method 
treated is used. Greatest emphasis will be laid upon the 
Medical and Physical examinations. 

1. Application. 

In making application, the applicant states his 
personal and family history, cause ^f fatner's or mother's 
death, hereditary disease, any serious injury such as 
broken limbs, etc., or any surgical operation, and his 
occupation. This is the first inquiry into the applicant's 
physical health. 

2, Basic Requirements, 
(a) Age. 

Owing to the fact that the ideal policeman must be 
a healthy young man who has arrived at the age of discre- 
tion and the further fact that policemen are quite generally 
pensioned when tiiey reach a certain a^e, or become physi- 
cally unable to perform the duties of an officer, candidates 
are not accepted unless they are more than 21 (ii New York) , 
24 (in Chicago) and less than 30 (New York), 34 (Chicago). 



- 47 



(b) Heieht, v.'eieht and Chest Expansion. 

Applicants at the time of examination must be not 
less than five feet eicht inches in hoicht. (Keu York - 
five feet, seven and one-half inches). 

Weight must not be less tlian one hundred, forty 
five pounds, nor greater than tv7p hundred, thirty-five 
pounds. Over or underweight is cause for rejection. 
(Nev; York - minimum one hundred, forty pounds.) 

The candidates must be of a v/eight falling within 
the limits of weights prescribed in the following table, 
according to his height. Applicants must have a chest 
expansion of not less than three inches. The circumference 
of chest that applicant must have corresponds to his height 
ao iz^Ten in the table. 

"Civil Service Text Book - City of Chicago: 

The physical schedule for tiie police department. 

32 Height Mln. Teight Uax. height Uin. Circum. of Chest 

(quiescent) 
. 35 inches 

35.^ 

36 

37 

37-^ 

38 

39 

40 

41 



5 ft. 


8 


in. 


145 


lbs. 


185 


5 " 


9 


« 


150 


N 


190 


5 " 


10 


N 


155 


H 


195 


5 " 


11 


N 


160 


n 


205 


6 - 






165 


H 


210 


6 " 


1 


H 


170 


n 


215 


6 " 


2 


N 


175 


m 


225 


6 " 


3 


n 


180 


n 


230 


6 • 


4 


N 


185 


n 


235 



- 48 - 

Thus far, the cauididate uust stand upon anthropo- 
metrical measurements, his ajje and history. If he does not 
measure up to the requirements he is not permitted to go 
any further with the examination. 

3« Medical Examination. 
The following is the description of the medical 
examination of the New York Patrolman, as described by 
L. F. Fuld: 

A. By Inspection. 

"The candidate enters the xaedical exa-ainers' room 
in a nude condition. He is asked if he has been examined 
before. Then he takes oath that he v/ill answer all ques- 
tions trutirifully. 

Tliis is follov/ed by an inspection by the chief 
medical examiner for defective legs, varicose veins, vari- 
cosele, hydracele, enlargement of testicles, strictures or 
uncontinence of urine. Any acute disease of the genito, 
urinary organs or any syjiptoms of venereal disease will 
cause the preemptory rejection of the candidate. The 
abdomen is examined for rupture or for evidence of an in- 
comi^letely healed laporotomy. 

B. Sars, Hose, Tiiroat. 

Next his ears, nose and triroat are exazJined. Ob- 
struction to free breathing, cioronic catarrh, or very 
offensive breath may cause the rejection of the candidate. 
The teeth must be in good condition. There must be at 



- 49 - 

least two molar teeth to eacii Jaw on each side and tixese 
in good condition for proper mastication. At least twenty 
natural teeth nust be present. 

0. Rectum, Anus. 

Next the subject's rectum and anus are inspected for 
the presence of fissures and fistulas or external or in- 
ternal piles, which are cause for rejection. 

D. Feet. 

Feet are examined now. Any affections of tiie joints, 
sprains, or stiffness of the arms or legs, hands or feet 
will cause the rejection of tiie candidates, and in trie case 
of tiie feet - flat feet, ingrowing nails, or iiammer toes 
are especially looked for because tney would prevent the 
candidate, if appointed, from performing his duties properly 
and efficiently. 

Finally the physician inspects the general appearance 
of the candidate once more to u^ke sure tiiat he is free from 
any marked deformity, free from all parasitic or syotexuic 
skin diseases and from evidence of intemperance in the use 
of stimulants or drugs. The body must be well proportioned 
and show careful attention to personal cleanliness. 

E. Important organs and Senses Tested. 
Important orgsuis and senses are tested. The Ci^icago 

Uedical examination makes the following rules regarding the 
conditions that these organs must be in at the time the 
candidate is exaniined: 



- 50 - 

(a) Vision: 

Glasses not permitted. Applicants must be able to 
read 20:30 with each eye and 22:iiO combined. 
(Sneller's Teat) Must pass a satisfactory color 
test with yams. 

(b) Heart and Lungs: 

Heart must be nonaal. Any indication of diseaoe of 
this organ or of the blood vessels snail be cause 
for rejection. Lungs and all organs of respiration 
must be normal. 

(c) Hearing: 
Must be nor::jal. 

(d) Brain and Nervous System: 

Must be normal, beyond question. Evidence of disease 
of the brain or of spinal cord shall be sufficient 
at least to hold the case under advisement. 

(e) Serious Injury or Illness: 

Complete recovery must be shown, and vrithout apprec- 
iable effect on physical capacity or function. 

P. Physical Defects. 

(a) Legs, Arms, Hands, Feet: 

Use of legs, arms, hands and feet must be complete, 

excepting that one joint missing from left hand shall 

not be cause for rejection, nor sriall left ankylosis, 

tliat affects not more than one finger or thumb joint 

be cause. Any physical characteristics tiiat migiit 



- 51 - 

interfere with good service or effect •appearance* , 
hammer toe and one flat foot s^iall be oauee for 
rejection. 

(b) Skin, Scalp: 

Any infections or contagious disease or pronounced 
evidence on any part of the body, of any disease 
shall be cause for rejection. 

(c) Vaccination: 

Bvidence must be shown of recent successful vaccination. 

(d) Teeth: 

There must be a proper number of natural teeth in good 
condition and repair, and these teeth must be in good 
opposition for bridge or crown worJc. 

G. Urinaljisis. 

First presence of suc;ar or repeated presence of al- 
bumen or casts shall be cause for rejection. 

H. Venereal. 

Evidence of having or having had syphillis, or of 
the presence of any other venereal disease, shall be cause 
for rejection. 

I. Hernia, Piles and Goitre. 

Hernia, Piles and Gpitre are also causes for rejection. 

4. Summary of Causes for Rejection. 

In general, then it miight be stated that these axe 
the causes for rejection: 



52 



1. Lack of HeiGJat. 

2. Lack of Teight or OverwelfiJit. 

3. Hereditary Disease. 

4. Lack of C^est Expansion. 

5. Lack of Girth of Chest. 

6. Defective Lees. 

7. Varicose Veins. 

8. Varicosele. 

9. Hydracele. 

10. Enlargement of Testicles. 

11. Strictiires or Uncontinence of Urine. 

12. Disease of Genito-urinary Orcana. 

13. Symptoms of Venereal Disease. 

14. Piles, Fissures and Fistulas of Rectum and Anus. 

15. Flat feet, Inerowing Nails, Hammer Toes. 

16. Impaired Vision. 

17. Heart Disease. 

18. Lung Disease. 

19. Infections or Contagious Disease. 

20. Repeated Presence of Albumen or Casts in Urine. 

21. Hernia. 

22. Goitre. 



- 53 - 

The following statistics shows the number of individ- 
who V7ere rejected for the various defects brought to lisht 
by the medical examinations of candidates for the Police 
Department of Chicago: 

"Civil Service Commission of Chicago - Annual Report" 
"Patrolman: 
Cauoe of Rejection 
Varicose Veins 
Color Blind 
Defective Vision 
Flat Feet or Deformity 
Ht. Tgt. Chest 
Heart Disease 
Lung Disease 
Urine 
Miscellaneous 

Total 

Prom these statistics it can be seen tiiat the night, 
weight and ciiest measurements cause more rejections than 
any three other causes. ISTe are discovering more and more 
tlirough anthropometrical measure.'nents and physical efficiency 
tests that height and weight in themselves are not reliable 
for determining physical efficiency. 

Dr. Sargent states, "those of us who are engaged in 
making physical measurements of men by the thousands soon 
loam the limitations of the information which comes to us 
from anthropometrical measurements*. ^ 



1916 


1917 


1919 


1 





1 








2 


1 


3 


15 





2 


2 


9 


20 


30 


d 





3 








3 





2 


1 








3 


11 


27 


57 



- 54 - 

Measurements alone do not tell uo anything of the 
texture and quality of the parts covured, how much is fat or 
bone, and how much is muscle. 

There is a lar^e field open for studying the different 
types of men in relation to physical fitness. The tests made 
by the writer and recorded in a later section under the topio 
of "Sargent Tests* will show some indications that we cannot 
say a man is physically inefficient just because he is heavy 
or lii^ht in weight, but that certain combinations maJce differ- 
ent types of men and tliat these men have certain physical 
handicaps which might be counterbalanced by soi^.e otxier factor. 
The Height, Weight and Chest Chart is an attempt to classify 
the :nen with regard to tneir relative height, weight and 
chest measurements. Should another factor, such as the 
Sargent test be introduced into this combination to test 
whether the individual might have some valuable characteris- 
tics which would at least compensate or more than compensate 
for the minor deficiency that would otherwise throw him out. 
Take the case of A. J. , a recruit for the South Parks 
Police Department, who was about six pounds under.veight 
according to the standards as set. He was a very capable 
man physically as shown by his index in the Sargent's test and 
by the fact that he stuffed himself with food and water to 
the extent of making up tlie lack of weight he passed the 
physical tests. This is very common in these exar^inations 
and the officials do not object to them doing it when they 



- 55 - 

think the man looks like he posBeaeea the desirable quali- 
ties. Why not eliminate such folly and put in a recompen- 
sating factor in the height, weight and chest measurement 
requirement ciiart? 

5. Phyoical Tests. 

Space will not be taken up to go into detail regard- 
ing the physical tests which are familiar to many. If any 
one should desire a f..ller description of these tests he 
can find this in the "American Physical Education Review", 
Volume 14, by L. P. Puld, (pp. 168). 

The following chart gives the name of tlie test, tlie 
standard for 100;» for each test and the weight of each test 
in the whole of the physical tests: 

"Civil Service Text Book - City of Chicago. Police. 
Physical Standard No. 2; 
Positions: Patrolman and Guard, House of Correction, 



T)t. 35. Test 








weifiht 


Capacity of Lungs 




320 ou.In. 


100 


3 


Strength of Back 




300 Kilos 


100 


6 


Strength of Legs 




500 Kilos 


100 


6 


Strength of Upper 


Arms 


(Chinning) 10 


100 


6 


Strength of Forearm 


150 Kilos 


100 


6 


Pectorals 




100 Kilos 


100 


2 


Traction Pull 




70 Kilos 


100 


3 


Dumbbell (75 pounc 


is) 


150 Pounds 


100 


5 



100 


5 


100 


2 


100 


5 




1 




50' 



- 56 - 

Physical Standard No. 2: (Continued) 

Abdominal Muscles 50 Pounds 

Abductors 130 Pounds 

Agility (Max. 4 ft. junp) 4 Feet 

Condition 
Total 

While the above are the physical tests for Patrolaian 
for the City of Chicago, the ensuing method of (jrading is 
that of Hew York City. The method of the two cities is 
about the same except that Chicago gives the physical ex2Lm- 
ination a total weight of 50 while New York gives only a 
total weight of 30. 

The following is L. F. Fuld's description of the 
measurements and method of grading for tne Kew York Police, 
in American Physical Education Review, Volunie 14, pp. 170: 

"Police Exa;nination (Physical) : 

All the tests in the Physical Kxaiaination are given 
a combined weight of tixirty, and the sum of the products 
obtained by multiplying the percentage received by the candi- 
date on each test by the relative weigiit attached to the 
test is divided by thirty. Furthermore, since the strength 
of the candidate as determined by the marks received by him 
in the pliysical tests is given a weight of two in the exam- 
ation for the position of Patrolman, the quotient obtained 
by dividing by thirty is multiplied by two to secure the 
candidate's standing in the strength tests." 



- 57 - 

"At the conclusion of the strength teste, the candi- 
date is again required to strip for the takine of neaoure- 
ments. These measurements are: 

Weight 1. 1. Girth of chest - after noruial expiration. 
Girth of chest - after forced inspiration, 

Weight 5. 2. Girth of waist at narrowest part. 

Weight 2. 3. Girth of thigh at widest point. 

Weight 2. 4. Girth of calf; upper arm; foreaim. 

Weight 1. 5, Depth of chest; abdomen. 

Physical Examination. Grading. (pp. 171) 

In the case of each of these measurements all of 
which are recorded in centimeters i a certain measurement is 
given a weight of 100, the perfect measurement varying with 
the size and weight of the subject, and sxnaller measurements 
are given lower percentages. The percentage given to each 
measurement is multiplied by the weight attached to tiiat 
particular measurement in the exa:nination, and all of tiiese 
products are added. The sum of these products is added to 
the percentage which is given to the subject on general 
muscular condition, to v/hich is given a weight of nine in 
the exai-ination . This percentage for muscular condition is 
deter;nined by a careful inspection of the candidate and by 
an examination of his performances in the physical strength 
tests. All of these products are added and the sum divided 
by thirty, the resulting percentage being the percentage 
of the candidate in the measurements. 



-58 - 

"The percentage receiyed in the strength teste 
multiplied by two is added to the percentage received in 
the measurements, and after the sum has been divided by 
three the quotient is the percentage which the candidate 
receives in his physical examination." 



- 59 - 
VII. PHYSICAL BPPICIENCY. 

1. Man Vs. Machine. 

■In the modem factory the science of machinery it 
developed to its highest point. In the selection , con- 
struction and use of the machine nothing is left to chance. 
Its type is selected in accordance with its exact fitness 
for the work deiaanded of it. It is constructed of appro- 
priate materials and is so designed as to avoid lost motion 
and the waste of energy involved and to allow the h-ghest 
possible proportion of the total energy that is transformed 
to perform the work required. It is kept clean, unnecessary 
friction is avoided, and every care is taken that its bear- 
ings shall not become corroded, rusted or worn beyond 
repair. When in action it is run at a speed for which it 
is planned, it is not overloaded, and not overheated; the 
condition under which it can work with the greatest effic- 
iency has been carefully studied; and every effort is made 
to maintain these conditions and secure the largest possible 
output without injury or unnecessary deterioration of the 
machine itself." ^ 

2. The Human Machine. 

Ho other factory mechanism approaches the hu man 
machine in its intricacy, the perfection of the correlation 
of its working parts, its combination of delicacy and 



- 60 - 

otrentjth, and its adaptability to the work required of it. 
In the factory Byetem the efficiency of Uiis human machine 
is based upon the amount of energy needed to produce the 
greatest amount of work. This method cannot be used to 
measure the efficiency of the policeman. Of course, we 
could tell you hos much more work a heavy built policeman has 
to do to cover the same amount of ground than aoes a lighter 
policeman. But that would not tell us an^thin^; as to the 
efficiency of their work. The stout policenan may be just 
as efficient in patrolling that beat as is the lighter man 
as he has a body that is able to furnish more energy. How- 
ever, it is not the matter of wd. king the beat that deter- 
mines which is capable od doing the best police duty. But 
if two policemen, one stout and the other lighter, were 
walking down the street together and a pickpocket snatched 
a ladies pocketbook tvfenty-five yards ahead cf them - who 
would be the more apt to catch the tneif? Or, supposing 
one of these two policemen were called upon to subdue some 
insane person who was running wild and threatening to injure 
some helpless persons? In either case, the one that is 
most likely to capture and hold the offender is the one wh^ 
is better able to handle his body 7/ith the greatest amount of 
speed, least amount oi overhead, leaet amount of overheating 
and whose body furnished the best conditions for the working 
together of the different parts. 



:.%.■■■ j 



- 61 - 

3, Basis of Idilitary Efficiency. 

Col. H. J. Koehler in his "V/Gst Point Manual of 
Diaciplinary Physical Training* states, "that the efficiency 
of military establishment is in direct ratio to the pliysical 
fitness and aptitude of its indiviuual units has never been 
better demonstrated as conclusively as it has duiin£; tiiC 
;7orld War." 

This same statement might be made concernin(^ the 
physical efficiency of the police department. 

4. Policeman and Soldier Alike. 

In the preceding chapter we have seen with viAt 
great care tiie policeman is selected. After passing the 
exai:iination the individual ougi.t to be physically fit for 
the duties he is to perform in tiie capacity of a policeman. 

Ray croft, in "Mass Physical Training*' says, "the 
fact that a man passes the physical examination for ad- 
mission to the army indicates simply tliat he is good human 
material and suffers no obvious physical handicap." Like- 
wise, a man passing the physical exai^ination for admisaion 
for the police force only inaicates that he suffers; no 
physical handicap at the time examined. 

The duties of the policeman are aiiailar to ihose of 
a soldier in many respects. TThen needed for action he must 
be able to respond quickly and precisely. However, the times 
of real action comes at rare intervals, ajid unless tnere is 



- 62 - 

some form of physical training for hin uurin^ tne times of 
peace there is creat danger of physical deterioration. 

5. Civil Service Pnysical Stcjideird for Police. 

"In the oriijinal entrance exaoiinations for Toatrolaien 
in the Police Departiiicnt , a.^xjlicanto, in a >aition to the 
requirements of Rule II, at the tiiae of exa^.ination ;uust be 
betvyeen the aj^es of 21 and 30 years, not less than 5 feet, 
7 incxies in i.eigiit (in bare feet), posse;;s weijat and 
m^asureuients in accordance with the tables given below, and 
must be piiysically qualified to tiustain ti^e labors and ex- 
posures of the police as d^jteririined by the ii^edical and 
physical exa-iners appointed by ti^e Commission;" 1 

It can be seen that the medical and pxv'sical examin- 
ations are intended to be a standard by which a man is 
measured as to his capacity to perform his duties and abil- 
ity to sustain exposure. 

Since the standards as set by the medical and physi- 
cal exaiiiinations so far exceeds tiie standards required of 
men in the ordinary walk of life, tt is assumed that the 
duties of the policeman with respect to severeness, variety 
and general intensiveness de.^nde tnat tne policuiaan poseeas 
more t--an the average amount of organic vigor, Jiuscular 
and nervous streni^th and endurance. Aside from these it 
is also nececsajry that the : ower of resistance to disease, 
1. "Civil Sorvice Laws and Rules for City of Cxiicago* . 
in effect June 1, 1920. 



- 63 - 
soiaatic rigor inherent in every individual, in a greater 
or leaser decree, be fully developed in order triat he may 
successfully withstand the hardships of the service. 

In other words, to measure his physical efficiency, 
the question as to whether a laan once physically efficient 
is always physically efficient must be considered. Along 
with this we must take up the further question of whether 
it is just as important for a middle-aged man to be able 
to sustain exposure and perform duties as it is for the 
younger man who has just been accepted on the strength of 
his ability to furnish evidence of being capable of sus- 
taining exposure and performing the duties of a policei:ian. 

If all we had to do was to repeat the famous motto 
"Every day in every way I'm getting better and better", we 
certainly would always be physically efficient or fit. But 
metabolism and katabolism do not seem to be assisted very 
much in this way, at least not enough to talk about nere. 

The question as to what should be the standard of 
physical efficiency of a "middle-aged" police^aan ought to 
be of greatest concern a;aong the xieads of police departments 
and leading physical educators. 

The policeman of C/iicago have the advantage of having 
a body that at one time at least was passed upon by the board 
of examiners as being capable of aieeting the requirements 
necessary for the performance of duties. If the physical 
and medical exaniinations are to be taken as standards of 
physical efficiency, why should not more effort be placed 



- 64 - 

upon keeping the men of the police departments physically 
efficient? 

6. Civil Service Efficiency. 

The Police Department of Chicago is under Vlvil 
Service. Reculation XII in Civil Service is headed, 
"Individual Efficiency Records". The followinfj; comes 
under this heading: "Sheets for monthly efficiency mark- 
ings shall be furnished by the Civil Service Commission to 
departments. They must be made out in ink or on the type- 
vrriter. The monthly efficiency markings of all appointees 
in the classified service shall be derived froiii the daily 
time reports and rei.orts of work of employes in the depart- 
ment, bureau, division or section concerned." 

Right here there is something missing in the regulau- 
tions which ought to be there. Here should be inserted, 
"Physical efficiency markings shall be derived from periodic 
tests which test the individuals capacity for performing 
the duties for which he had been examined previous to being 
appointed to tne position." The test must take into con- 
sideration physiologic changes that come with middle age 
and a system of training should be adopted and enforced to 
make it possible for the inen to keep up to standard, and 
if, they don't it is no fault of the department and the man 
deserves a low efficiency mark. 

Another thing that should be put In is, "Medical 



- 65 . 

examinations must be made annually of all men of the de- 
partment. Men are to be graded aund clasaified according to 
their age and physical condition as determined by an exam^ 
ining board of medical men. Corrective treatment, as well 
as preventive treatment, shall be prescribed by an efficient 
physical director for each classification and ample time 
shall be given each day for such treatment, * 

Reading further into Regulation XII, v;c find that tlae 
abilities and activities that are listed here cannot be 
recorded unless some means similar to the above suggestions 
are afforded for making the tests of these abilities and 
activities. The rei:uiation rc^^ds as follows: 

"Sub factors ana specific weights shall be used in 
the efficiency standards for • (Quality of Vork* wherever 
practicable. The definitions and wei(:;hts of the sub- factors 
which sriall be applied in marking the "quality of work* of 
different employes are, as follows: 

A. ABILITY: Ability to perform the specific duties 
of the position, physical ability, general health, endur- 
ance, technical ability, special knowledge, mechanical 
skill, neatness of work, originality, resourcefulness, 
initiative, ability to direct work and to uiana^^e men, exec- 
utive ability, sense of order, system, judgment, discretion, 
tact. 

C/ ACTIVITY: Alertness, promptness, speed, industry, 
perseverance, energy, diligence i willingness to work. 



- 66 



R. RELIABILITY: Certainty of action, sobriety, 
health, accuracy, exactness, freedom from error, truthful- 
ness, attention to duty, faithfulness." 

7. Physical Efficiency Tests. 

(a) Army, 

"The demands made by modem warfare for body control, 
agility, physical strength emd endurance are extremely 
severe. Every means should be employed to stimulate men to 
strive for a high standard of physical efficiency, and to 
maintain this high standard after it has been secured. 

Physical efficiency tests enable the Comuanding 
Officer to secure information about the physical condition 
and ability of the individual recruit and of his rate of 
progress during training. They enable him also to check 
up on the condition of the trained soldier by periodical 
tests, and to crade platoons and companies by t^-e use of 
charts showing the percentage of the membership of each 
outfit that has attained the various grades of physical 
efficiency. Such charts and contests encourage the spirit 
of competition among the units in the matter of physical 
efficiency smd aid in the development of a healthy esprit 
de corps." 

"The standard test is composed of five ele;:.ents; 
four simple events to test skill and ability in running, 
jumping, climbing and throwing, smd a fifth event which 



- 67 - 

is a combination of the foregoing." 1 

(b) Navy. 

While the writer has not been able to lay his fingers 
upon any definite test used in the Navy, he feels certain 
that the value of such tests is being recognized. In an 
article "Athletics in the Navy" by B. C. R. Captain, U.S.M.. 
we find such recognition of participation in activities 
which develop the parts and really test the parts essential 
to vitality and to the work in gunnery, engineering and 
upkeep. 2 

(o) Fire Departxaent of Chicago. 

The Fire Department of Chicago has come to realize 
the importance of keeping the men in physical fitness. 
Hand ball courts are connected with most fire department 
buildings, and in some there are partly equipped gymnasiums. 
In the Summer time, base ball is promoted in the department. 
But the most interesting development is that of the intro- 
duction of periodical physical tests. These tests are along 
the line of the duties which must be performed in case of 
fires, etc. They are in their embryonic stage and tlie 
development and extension to other branches of Civil Service 
is inevitable. 



1. Raycroft - "Mass Physical Training" 

2. "Mind and Body" - Vol. 29, pp. 395. 



- 68 - 

VIII. SARGENT'S TEST. 
1. Police Department of Chicago. 

Before discuoaing the form in which this efficiency 
test Tiill come to the Police Department, it would "oe well 
to iaake a brief review of all that could in any way be 
considered as being an attempt on tne part of the Police 
Department to maintain a higher rate of physical efficiency. 

At the present time tnere is no way in which the 
physical efficiency of a policeman is measured and rc;corded 
by the Department. And there is likewise no regular phys- 
ical training given after the probation period of the 
recruit, other than two hours a week for six weeks during 
the Spring of the year. For forty- six weeks then, there is 
no training whatever. The drill during the six weeks in 
Spring consists of foot drilling under the direction of the 
Drill Master. Each man on the force is required to attend 
the drilling school one day per week for a two-hour period. 
The Armories are used for the drilling. 

It is not very difficult to estliiate the value of 
this drilling, nor of the probability of discovering the 
physical efficiency of the men during the drill. 



About the middle of the Suminer of 1922, Chief 
Pitzmorris of the Chicago Police Department announced that 



- 69 



on September 16th and 17th there would be held a Police 
Field Day. The events were decided upon as follows: 
50 Yard Dash, 100 Yard Dash, 220 Yard Dash, 440 Yard Run, 
880 Yard Run, Mile Run, Running Broad Jump, Running High 
Jump, Hop, Step ajid Jump, 16-lb. Shot Put, 56-lb. Weight 
for distance, 440 Yard Relay, 880 Yard Relay, One Mile 
Relay. Feature events - Shuttle Relay (20 men ^n a team, 
on foot), Chariot Relay (51 men on a team, foot), ajid 
Tug of War, foot (20 men on a team). Special events - 
50 Yard Dash, for men in the service over 20 years; 75 
Yard Dash, for men in the service over 10 years and under 
20 years; Medlay Relay - \Valk 440 yards - run 440 yards - 
ride a horse 880 yards - ride a motorcycle one i:iile; 
Fat Man's Race - 50 yards (a minimum weight of 200 lbs.) 
Mounted Events - Push Ball, mounted (11 horses and riders); 
Tug of War, mounted (4 horses and riders per team); Water- 
melon Race, on horseback (individual); Cockade Tilting, on 
horseback (6 men). Motorcycle events - Polo game (5 men on 
a team); Barrel Race (Individual); Ring Race; Stake Race; 
Handkerchief Race. 

The main object of the Field Day v/as to raise funds 
for the Policemen's Benevolent Association, and incidently 
it was recognized as a means of improving the physical 
efficiency of the Department. 

A temporary stadium of enormous size was erected in 
Grant Park to stai:;e the events, and on botn days it was 



- 70 - 

filled and overflowing. Thousands of people were turned 
away on Sunday, the final day. 

To encourage Uie men eind afford tiriem a chance to 
train, the men were allowe^ about three hours a day (only 
those who were entering the meet) . Public Parks and Play- 
grounds became the center of training activities. Interest 
grew from day to day. Former athletic stars hunted up their 
spike shoes and track pants i which had been stored away for 
years, and ambitious youths bought tennis shoes and a gym. 
suit and applied themselves to tiie task of training. Others 
who thought that they needed the exercise, and tiiat here was 
a chance to get it on the City's time, came out in street 
shoes and undershirts and had a good time at txAt. 

The writer of this paper was at ti;iat particular time, 
and now, playground Instructor at Ogden Park in Englewood, 
Chicago. At the request of Captain Altman of the Englewood, 
11th District Station, the Instructor assiuaed charj^e of tne 
training of the men of tnis station for the Field Day. 
Mr. Cottle, also an Instructor at Ogden Park, was in charge 
of the training of tne police of the 10th District Station, 
who on an avera^^e were in about tlie same shape as the men 
of the 11th District. 

Out of about 300 officers serring from the Englewood 
Station, 50 men (or l/lOth) responded to the call for 
athletes. These thirty men ranged in age from about 22 
years to 49 years, and from 6 months to 16 years in the 



71 



serrice. Howerer, the record here giren is only of the 
best ten men in oacii event: 

August 14th - 50 Yard Dash. After about two weeks 
preliminary training, the police 7/ere timed. Tne fastest 
time was 6 sec. 2/5 sec. The averatie for the beat ten men 
was 6 and 9/10 seconds. The poorest record was 7.2 seconds 
with plenty of company. 

August 22nd - 100 Yard Dash. The average of the 
best ten men for the 100 Yard Dash was 13 and 1/5 seconds; 
the best time was 11 and 3/10 seconds, and ^ne poorest tiine 
15 seconds* 

August 15th - Running High Jump. Ten out of 30 
men jumped four feet or better in the high jump. The best 
jump was 4 feet, 10 inches; and the average of tne best ten 
men was 4 feet, 3-3/5 inches. Poorest Jump - 3 feet, 6 in. 

August 15th - 16-lb. Shot Put. The best ten Oien 
put the shot at an average of 21 feet, 8/10 foot per man. 
The best put was 25 ft. 2 inches; tne poorest 18 feet. 

August 15th - Running Broad Jump. The best ten men 
jumped an average of 14 feet per man. Some men could not 
coordinate to get a jump. 

August 22nd - 220 Yard Dash. The avera^^e for tiie 
best ten men in this event was 30.3 seconds, and the best 
time was 28 seconds. 

In the longer runs, not many of tlie men had enough 
endurance. 

August 22nd - 440 Yard Dash. The best seven men 



72 - 



ran the 440 in slti average of 1.08 seconds per inasi, 

AuGUst 22nd - Mile Run. TJiree men ran a mile in 
6.30, 6.50 and 6.12 minutes. 

A glance at these records may not meem a great deal. 
It must be remembered that they are the beat and tiie aver- 
ages of the best ten men are considerably higiier than the 
general average of the department. It is impossible to 
get the records of all the .lien and in tuis way wc inust draw 
our conclusions from the fact that we are almost certain to 
find the general average performance considerably below 
that of the best ten men of this station. 

According to McKenzie's standards of runrxing (see 
pp. 41), 12 seconds is considered fair for tne 100 Yard 
Dash. The average of the best ten men of EnglevTood Sta- 
tion was 13 and l/o seconds, which accordingly we might 
consider as being poor for an active person. 

In the Broad Jump 18 feet is considered a fair 
jump. The average of the best ten men of Englewood 
was 14 feet which, likewise, is considered poor. 

In the High Jump, 5 feet is considered a fair jiamp. 
The average of the best ten men of Englewood was 4 and 
3/10 feet which again is poor. 

In the 440 Yard Dash, 60 seconds is considered fair. 
The average of the best seven men ^f Englewood wac 1 minute, 
8 seconds. This is also considered poor by McKenzie. 
Tl^e same is true of longer runs and the shot put. 



- 73 - 

In drawing concluaiona, '.ve oust take in the facts 
of tirieae records and assume that tiie moot capable aien of 
this station were in the tests. Then, with these facts 
and that assumption, we would be safe in saying that the 
physical efficiency of the Englcwood Police from the 
standpoint of athletics is poor. 

But the Engleirood Police took second place in the 
Police Field Day, which puts them higner in athletics than 
almost the entire Police Department. Now then, what is to 
be said about the physical efficiency of the whole Depart- 
ment, judging from an atiiletic point of riew? 

3. Explanation of "Sargent Test". 

(a) Origin. 

The Sargent test is naiaed after its originator, Dr. 
D. A. Sargent, former director of the Kemenway Gymnasium 
of Harvard University. Dr. Sargent is well known in 
Physical Education and the test used in these e?:pcriments 
is the result of years of study and experimentation. 

(b) Metiiod. 

The individual to be tested stands under a cardboard, 
or paper box cover, heavy and stiff enougr. to hold its form, 
about 12 inches in diameter, held or suspended from ten to 
twenty or more inches above his head. He is then requested 
to bend forward, flexing the trunk, knees and ankles, and then 
by a powerful Jump upward, straighten tne legs and spine to 



- 74 - 



try to touch the oardboord disk wlU^ the top of the head. 
Cnlncliv:; the arias for.vard and upward ul ti^e oorjie tixae t^ie 
legs* back and acok arc extended » vill be found to add to 
the i^Gi^i^it of tiac juap, ^nen the disk has been place i at 
the hi(;neat point above the head that can bo touo^^ed in 
ti.e jumping, ti-.e Loitiht ia mcaaured. Tnc difforonce between 
thie hei^lit and that of the total stature ie of courae the 
actual heic^.t juinced. Thus, if the indiYidual tec ted 
wcii^iied 150 pounds and Jumped LO inc:.eo aboTC his head and 
was 70 inches tall, the formuia for hia efficiency index 
would bo as follows: 



i.e. , XpO X. 20 

70 

MACHINE FOR MAKING SARGENT TEST 



■ 4k;. 



pan 



scale in inches 



e reeui here 



Scale 
1/2 inch equal I fact. 



Removable base and horizontal arm 




base 



- 75 - 

(o) 

Regarding the teot, Dr. Sargent says, "llo one would 
deny tliat the ability to project on's's body weight 20 or 30 
inches into the air against the force of grarity requires 
strength of the part of tne muacles engaged in the effort. 
No one woikld deny that th'3 effort would hare to be aade 
with a certain det^ree of Telocity or a^^eed in order to 
create impetus enougn to carry tr.e body tvrenty incr-es abore 
its own lerel in the standing position. Further, no one 
would deny that back of the requisite Btrenp^th of muscle 
fibers and rapidity with which they are made to contract 
there must be energy , "pep", "Tim", vitality, or whatever 
it .:iay be termed which drives our internal machinery. 
Overlapping all, of course, is trie skill or d exterity with 
which the jump is executed. Tx^erefore, the test as a whole 
may be considered as a momentary tryout of one's strength, 
speed , energy and dexterity combined, which in x^^ opinion, 
furnishes a fair physical test of a man, and solves in a 
simple way his unknown equation as determined potentially 
by his weight and height. 

(d) 

It will be observed that ti.e parts tested, namely, 
the muscles of the feet, calves, tnighs, buttoclis, back, 
neck, anterior deltoid, chest and biceps are the muscles 
moot used in all forms of athletics, sports, track and 
field games, settinij;-up exercises, posture drills, etc., 



- 76 • 

and are of funda!:aental lax.ortoncc in all aotlve industries* 
For this roason, I tiiink it should preoode any otixer all- 
jtound physical test in ba.oic value* 

An earlier olxaptcr has discussed at length the 
parts of the body used most by the i^olioecion in the per- 
formanco of his duties, A close study of the functioninc 
of these parts and p^rts tooted by the Sart;ent'a Teat -.Till 
disclose the fact that tx^e Sargont's Toot comes about aa 
close to testing the all-round riiyaical efficiency of a 
policc::;an ao it is poaaiblo vtiUi a oingle teat* 

The follovrinc experimental teata mode on variouo 
croups ia an attonpt to discover the value of tirie Sargent's 
teat ao a poaoible practical raoano of testing a polioeaan*s 
physical efficiency and of dctorraining the comparative 
physical efficiency betrycen the poliocraan and various other 
groups of men. 

4* Charts. 

(a) Explanation of Chart ?To. !• All Men Test. 
1. The headings of tho columns fro.:, left to rijit 
are: 

A. Number given Individual (Used in referring 

to charts). 
B* Name. 
C* Age. 

D* height, at tino of taking test, vrith somA 
aoijunt of clothes on aa Trhen teotod. 



- 77 - 

E. Height, in btockin(j, feet. 

F. Distance Jumped. 

G. Efficiency Index. 
H. Occupation. 

I. Degree of Activity. 

(a) Involved in Occupation. 

(b) Customary Recreation. 

(c) Special Forms of Exercise, as attending 
cyia, class, etc. 

2. This cliart is an index of all tne men tested, 
arranccd according to age. 

In the cases of numbers 50, 8, 2, 37, 1, 56, 59, 55, 
71, 58, 56, 67, 44, 68, 61, 63, and 62, the degree of 
activity, as given on this chart, refers to a period pre- 
ceding the time of the taking of the tests. See Wiart No. 
2 for these men after the first test. 

The degree of activity corresponds to U\e period of 
at least three months prior to the time of the tests. 
In the cases of the Business Men's group, some men chan(_,ed 
from 'no physical recreation' or 'gym. inactivity' to 
'active' in either one or both items with an increase in 
efficiency. 



- 78 



(b) Chart No. 1: 



1. 


Miller 


18 


154 


68 


20 


Ind. 
45.2 


Occupation 
Cleric 


Degree of 
Phys. Activity 
Involved in 
Wk. Rec. EC. 


2. 


Ruja..iell 


20 


155 


72 


23 


49.5 


Lineirian-Tel. 


- - 


3. 


Charbonneaux 20 


163 


69-:r 


20 


46.8 


Carpenter 


- 


4. 


Nelligan 


21 


168 


71^ 


16i 


39.9 


Eley. Guard 


- 


5. 


Keeney 


21 


165 


68-J 


23i 


55.8 


Carpenter 


- - 


6. 


Blank 


22 


155 


69 


18 


40.4 


Clerk 


- 


7. 


Cai^tlG 


22 


138 


G7.5 


21.5 


40.9 


iJoiler Uaker 


— (V.orks too i 


8. 


Goetz 


23 


165 


69 


23 


55. 


Clerk 


- 


9. 


Haraieninc 


24 


148 


68 


23 


50 


Carper.ter 


- 


10. 


Teinrick 


24 


222 


72.5 


17.5 


53.7 


Drive 


- 


11.] 


Kis 


24 


137 


67 


23 


46.1 


Ciiauffeur 


- 


12. 


Burger 


24 


162 


69.2 


23.8 


55.7 


Uachinist 


- 


13. 


Farrell 


24 


180 


74 


22 


53.5 


Cnauffeur 


- 


14. 


Corbett 


24 


157 


69.5 


22.5 


50.8 


Chauffeur 


- 


15. 


Joiinson 


24 


175 


68 


24 


61.7 


Chauffeur 


- 


16. 


0' Grady 


24 


170 


69 


23 


56.6 


Machinist 


- 


17. 


Lyons 


25 


151 


68i 


21i 


48.1 


Officer 


- 


18. 


IlcFarland 


25 


165 


70.5 


21.5 


53.1 


Clerk 


- 


19. 


O'Hearn 


25 


152 


68 


22 


49.1 


Teamster 


- 


20. 


GsL-nbon 


25 


160 


68.8 


22.2 


51.6 


Yard 7/oik 


- 


21. 


Addison 


26 


149 


70i 


20i 


42.8 


Officer 


- 


22. 


O'Brien 


26 


172 


69 


17 


42.6 


Officer 


. 


23. 


Folsom 


26 


182 


72i 


25i 


63.6 


Officer 


- 


24. 


Robin 


2G 


136 


68.5 


23.5 


45.2 


Brakeman R.R. 


- 


25. 


Keecan 


26 


191 


68.5 


20.5 


57.3 


Chauffeur 


^ 













- 79 


- 






26. 
27. 


UcGowan 

Delohery 


Chart 

Me 
26 
26 


No. 

158 
168 


1: (Continued) 

Hr.t. Jji. Incl. 
68.9 18.1 41.5 
71 20 47.3 


Occupation 
Tunnel Work 
Prt. Handler 


Dei;reo of 
Phya. Activity 
Involved in 
^. Rec. Ex. 
- nit;ht work) 
undeit^round) 


28. 


Krauae 


26 


165 


69 


23 


55. 


Elec.Crane.uan 


- 


29. 


Brown 


27 


157 


66.7 


21.3 


50.1 


Conductor 


- 


30. 


Stremplewski 27 


155 


68 


24 


54.7 


Machinist 


- 


31. 


Younc 


27 


160 


69 


22 


51.0 


Yard Master 


- 


32, 


CunninGi-am 


27 


162 


69i 


21i 


49.3 


Enamel er- Ford 


- 


33. 


Young 


27 


163 


■68.5 


22.5 


53.6 


Conductor 


- 


34. 


Lyons 


28 


148 


70i 


19 


39.9 


Officer 


- 


35. 


O'Hearn 


28 


145 


68f 


21i 


44.7 


Officer 


- 


36. 


McAleese 


28 


132 


64.5 


19.5 


39.9 


Printer 


- 


37. 


Larson 


28 


162 


69. 


21. 


49.2 


Line.:uin-Tel. 


- 


38. 


Noe 


28 


155 


68 


22 


50.1 


Conauctor 


- 


39. 


Brennan 


28 


155 


68.5 


21.5 


48. 6 


Switchman 


- 


40. 


V.odini 


28 


174 


70. 


21. 


52.2 


Salei^iuan 


- 


41. 


rjyan 


28 


175 


71 


17 


41,8 


Unciiiployed 


- 


42. 


Nortin 


29 


192 


67i 




46 


Policeman 


- 


43. 


Hobbs 


29 


160 


70i 


17^- 


39.0 


Policecian 


- 


44. 
45. 


Cnossen 
Fitzgerald 


29 
29 


151 
150 


70 
68 


18 

23 


38.8 
50,7 


Conductor 


- (iluscle 
bound) 


46. 


Gillcs 


29 


163 


70 


21 


48.8 


Chauffeur 


- 


47. 


Lenahan 


29 


154 


68.5 


22.5 


50.5 


Conductor 


- 


48. 


Laivler 


30 


165 


67-1 


16 


37.1 


Police.nan 


. 


49. 


McRose 


30 


160 


69.5 


19.5 


44.8 




- 


50. 


Con-reve 


30 


192 


75i 


21i 


55.3 


Bus.lian 


- - 



80 



Ciiart No. 1: (Concluded) 



















Decree of 


51. 


Ward 


Ma 

30 


157 


HKt. 
68.5 


21.5 


Ind. 
49.2 


0ccu^.ation 
Conductor 


Phys. Activity 
Involved in 
V.-k. Rec. Ex. 


52. 


Bemdt 


30 


172 


69 


19 


47.3 


Clerk 


- 


53. 


GouGhn 


30 


158 


68 


23 


53.4 


Clerk 


- 


54. 


Kielty 


30 


186 


69 


26 


70. 


Policexiian 


- — 


55. 


Hanavan 


31 


147 


64 


19 


49.3 


Officer 


- 


56. 


Sage 


31 


125 


68 


22 


42.2 


Officer 


- 


57. 


'Janno 


31 


185 


72 


19 


48.8 


P.O. Clerk 


- 


58. 


Hanbury 


32 


150i- 


73 


20 


47.2 


Bus. !ian 


- 


59. 


Reeves 


32 


139 


671 


21i 


43.5 


Salesman 


- 


60. 


Smith 


32 


182 


72 


20 


50.5 


S. P. Police 


- 


61. 


Eaplin 


33 


121 


67 


21 


37.9 


Photo. !7ork 


- 


62. 


Svranson 


33 


130 


67 


17 


33 




- 


63. 


Vt'ilson 


33 


125 


67 


20 


37.3 


Oilice 


- 


64. 


DeKocker 


34 


230 


68i 


18-^ 


62.4 


Policciuan 


- 


65. 


Nolan 


35 


138 


70-V 


22i 


44.5 


Policeman 


- 


66. 


Young 


36 


170 


71i 


18| 


47.9 


Draftsman 


- 


67. 


Strachin 


37 


155 


64i 


161 


38.9 


Trav.Salesiiian 


- 


68. 


Brunsell 


38 


15 6i 


64^ 


16 


40.3 




- 


69. 


Sloop 


45 


178 


69^ 


18 


46.5 


Police Sgt. 


- 


70. 


Conaon 


45 


207^ 


69i^ 


16i 


48.1 


Police Lt. 


- 


71. 


Clarkson 


48 


157 


66 


18 


46.6 


Bd. of Sduc. 


- 


72. 


McCarthy 


48 


182 


691 


18i 


47.6 


Police Lt. 


- 


73. 


Allinan 


49 


183 


70 


19 


49.4 


Police Capt. 


- 



- 81 - 

(c) Explanation of Chart lio, 2. (Sargent's Test 
Applied to Group of riuainess lien). 

Object ; 

The object of this experiment is to shovr the pnyai- 
cal efficiency of the men at the beginning of tne gymnasium 
season and the effect of regular exercise upon the physical 
efficiency. Also to afford a coiiiparison between a group of 
business men and the pollcexaan. 

Method: 

In the middle of December, 1922, 18 business men were 
given the Sargent's Test. An accurate account was kept of 
their attendance. The testa were all given preceding the 
gymnasium period in the evening. The regular program was 
followed each class session, consisting of five minutes of 
marching and maze running; twenty- five minutes setting-up 
exercises; thirty minutes Volley Ball. 

On April 10th, four months after the first test, 
another test was made. 

Chart No. 2 shows the number of days which the 
men attendea gym. during the four months, and the pnysical 
efficiency index of first and second test. 

In this experiment there can be seen a relation 
between pi.ysical activity and physical efficiency. In 
almost every case the men showed some improvement and in 
many there is a luarked improvement. Men with lower marks 
on the first test, and with a fairly regular atiendance 
showed most improveaent. 



. 62 - 




- 83 - 
(e) Explanation of Chart No. 3. (Sargent* s Test 
applied to a group of men taking the Civil 
Service Examination for South Park Police). 
All of the men of this group had passed the Medical 
and Physical Tilxaminations. The Sargent's Test was given to 
the men at Puller Park immediately after they had taken the 
Civil Service physical exaiiiination, wxiich consisted of nine 
physical tests, dcscrioed ao follows: 

1. Capacity of Lungs: 

Max. 280 cu. in. 1/2 off for each inch 8 

2. Strength of Back: 

aax. 400 kilos. 1/2 pt. off for each kilo. 10 

3. Strength of Legs: 

Max. 500 kilos. 1/2 pt. off for oacr. kilo. 10 

4. Strength of ITorearm: 

Uax. 250 kilos, R. and L. plus. 

i/2 pt, off for eacn kilo. 10 

5. Strength of Biceps: 

Uax. chin 8 times. 10 pts. for each pull 12 

6. Strength of Triceps: 

Uax. push-up 8 times. 20 pts. for each one. 15 

7. Abdominal Muscles: 

Uax, 25 flections. 4 pts. for each flection. 5 

8. High Jump: 

Max, 4 ft - 100,^. 3 pts. for each inch. 15 

9. Pence Vault: 

Max. 4 ft, 6 in. - 100,^. 8 pts. for each in. 15. 



- 84 - 

The results of the Sargent's Test and the Civil 
Service Physical Tests are shown side by side on Ciiart 
No. 3. 

With the aid of Chart No. 1, a closer study may 
be made of these men as to ti.eir physical efficiency. 



- 85 



(f) Chart No, 3! 



Ho. 

25. 

16. 

15. 

12. 

28. 

30. 

33 

13. 

18. 

53. 

40. 

20. 

31. 

14. 

45. 

47. 

38. 

32. 

51. 

19. 

57. 

46. 



Name 
Keegsui 
' Grady 
Johnson 
Bur(;er 
Ivr. use 



Sargent's Test on Men ^o Have Taken 

Civil Service Exoinination for South Park Police Dept. 

Sargent Cf. Activity other 
Jump Index Index than Occui-ation 



Age . Wgt . Hgt 

26 191 68.5 19.5 57. 

24 170 69. 23. 56.6 

24 175 68. 24 



77.9 No Training 
98.1 No Training 



61.7 99.1 (Baaeoall-Football- 
( Basket Ball. 
24 162 69.2 23.8 55.7 98. No Training 



26 165 69, 



Stremplewski 27 155 68, 



23. 55. 98, IIo Training 

24. 54.7 94.1 Baseball - Basket Ball 



Young 27 163 68.5 22.5 53.6 93,6 Little gym. work 

Farrell 24 180 74. 22. 53.5 100. Baseball - Basket Ball 

McFarland 25 165 70.5 21.5 53.1 81.5 No Training 

Goughn 30 158 68. 23. 53.4 91.2 No Training 

Uodini 28 174 70. 21. 52.2 98,3 No Training 

Garabon 25 160 68.8 22.2 51.6 93.7 No Training 

Young 27 160 69. 22, 51. 100. No Training 

Corbott 24 157 69.5 22.5 50.8 30.9 (Baseball-Ba£:ket Ball - 

(Football 

Fitzgerald 29 150 68, 23, 50.7 ^6.1 No Training 

Lenehan 29 154 68.5 22,5 50.5 93,8 No Training 

Noe 28 155 68. 22, 50.1 96,5 (None for years 

(Active until recent yrs 

Cunningham 27 162 69.3 20.2 49.3 91,1 No Training 

7ard 30 157 68,5 21,5 49,2 95,4 No Training 

O'lleam 25 132 68. 22. 49.1 95.5 Baseball 

':ianne 31 185 72. 19. 48.8 76.3 IIo Training 

Gilles 29 163 70. 21. 48.8 99.5 No Training 



- 86 - 
Chart IIo. 3 (Concluded) 



Sarcent C.C. Activity other 

Nq ,« Name Ar,e V/r.t « Hp;t . Jump Index Index than Occupation 

39. Brennan 28 155 68.5 21.5 48.6 100. Gym. occasionally 

52. Berndt 30 172 69. 19. 47.3 94.6 No Training 

27. Delohcry 26 168 71. 20. 47.3 96.5 No Training 

41. Ryan 28 175 71. 17. 41.8 77.3 No Training 

26. McGowan 26 158 68.9 18.1 41.5 91.1 No Training 



- 87 - 

(e) DiscuDGion: (Ciiart Ho. 3): 

The Civil Gerrice system does not have a passing 
mark for the physical exainination, as the grade received 
is merely added in vith the other phases of the test. 

For convenience of this experiment, a grade of 
75/^ is to be considered as a passing grade in tiie Civil 
Service test. 'Ye find that every man tailing the ph^ sical 
test has passed the examination, as the grades range from 
76,3 to 100;5. 

In the Sargent's Test, we find that the highest 
grade or index is G1.7, and the lowest 41,5. Tne follo-;7ing 
table shows the correlation of the two tests: 

Table IIo. 1: (Tivision of men tested into 3 groups), 





Order 
1 


(No. 


refers to 
25 


Naines) 




Civil 
13 


Service 

X 




2 




16 




X 


31 


# 




3 




15 




X 


39 







4 




12 




X 


46 





Division 


5 




28 




X 


15 


X 


"A" 


6 




30 




# 


40 


# 




7 




33 




# 


16 


X 




8 




13 




X 


12 


X 




9 




18 







28 


X 




10 




53 




# 


27 






X - In sa;ae division; for both tests, 
# - Eash test in adjoining division, 
- Division betv/een the two tests. 



Division 



- 88 - 
Order Sarcrer 







(No. 


refura 


to IlOiaes) 




ucj-yj-wp 




11 




40 


# 


38 


X 




12 




20 


X 


45 


X 




13 




31 


# 


19 


X 




14 




14 


# 


51 


X 


rivision 


15 




45 


X 


52 


// 


"B" 


16 




47 


X 


30 


# 




17 




38 


X 


47 


X 




18 




32 


# 


20 


X 




19 




51 


X 


33 


# 




20 




19 


X 


53 


// 



21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 



57 


X 


46 





39 





52 


# 


27 





41 


X 


26 


X 



26 


X 


32 


# 


18 





14 


# 


25 





41 


X 


57 


X 



- 89 - 

Table No, 2: Claoailication. 

Showing Correlation of Sargent's and Civil Service 
Teste - grading and clasi^ification. 



No^ 


Sargent Test 


9ivil Service 




X5 


61.7 


99.1 






16 


56.6 


98.1 


Class A: 




12 


55.7 


98. 


ATerage : 




28 


55. 


98. 


Sgt. Test 


56.5 


13 


53.5 


100. 


C. S. 


98.6 


20 


51.6 


93.7 






45 


50.7 


96/ 


Class B: 




47 


50.5 


93.8 


Average: 




38 


50.1 


96.5 


Sgt. Test 


50.2 


51 


49.2 


95.4 


C. S. 


93.4 


19 


49.1 


95.5 






57 


48.8 


76.3 


Class C: 




41 


41.8 


77.3 


Average: 




26 


41.0 


91.11 


Sgt. Test 
C. S. 


43. 
81.5 



- 90 - 

In Class "A" , five out of ten cases showed a very 
distinct relation between the two tests. Tne Sargent Test 
for thooe five cases shows an index ranging from 61.7 down 
to 53.5, wh.le in the Civil Service Test they range from 
10 to 98,^. 

The mean average in this class for the Sar^ient Test 
is 56.5 and that of the Civil Service Test is 98.6. 

In Class "B" six out of ten caaeo proved as indicated 
above. The range in the Sargent Test extended from 51.6 
to 49.1, and in the Civil Service Test from 96.5 to 93.7. 

The mean average in this class for trie Sargent Test 
is 50.2 and in ti^e Civil Service Teat 93.4. 

In Class "C" tixreo out of seven cases proved a true 
relation between the two tests. The range in Sargent Test 
was from 48.8 to 41.5, and in the Civil Service test from 
91.1 to 76.3 

The mean average for the Sargent Test was 43.0 and 
81,5 in the Civil Service Tes. 

Therefore, we may consider a grade 93. 6;% in the 
Civil Service physical exa::.ination to be an indication of 
physical efficiency which corresponds to a physical 
efficiency index of 56.5 in tiie Sargent's Test. 

Liiiiewise, 93.4 - Civil Service, corresponds to 50,2 
in the Sargent's Test, and 81,5 in Civil Service to 43. 
in the Sargent's Test. 

^'ith the aid of the above, the followi/.g scale has 
been prepared: 



- 91 - 
Scale: 
Civil Service Sarcent's Civil Service Sart;ont»o 



phya. Teat 


Test 


Ph.y8. Test 
85 


Test 


100 


57. 


45, 


99 


56. 


84 


44.5 


98 


55. 


83 


44. 


97 


54. 


82 


43.5 


96 


53. 


81 


43, 


95 


52, 


80 


42.5 


94 


51. 


79 


42. 


93 


50. 


78 


41.5 


92 


49. 


77 


41. 


91 


48. 


76 


40,5 


90 


47.5 


75 


40, 


89 


47. 


74 


39,5 


88 


46.5 


73 


39, 


87 


46. 


72 


38.5 


86 


45.5 


71 


38. 






70 


37.5 



Now with this correlating; scale, it is possible to 
give a Group of policeman the Sarijent's Test and compare 
the results with what is considered to be the stsmdard 
physical requirements for a policeman, as indicated by the 
Civil Service physical tests. 

The Sarcent Test being very simple and not requiring 
much equipment, therefore, may be used as a periodical 
physical efficiency test for tr.e policeman witixout imposing 
a hardship upon him or the department. 



- 92 - 

(h) Explanation of Chart No. 4. (Sargent's Test 
given to a group of South Pari: and City Police .en.) 

In this experiment, the object is to dutcr;uine the 
physical efficiency of a number of policemen by means of 
the Saigent's Test, and to put these ficures in terms of 
the Civil Service physical tests. As has been stated 
previously in this thesis, the Civil Service physical test 
is supposed to be a test of a nan's ability to perform the 
duties of a policeman. : 

The men on Chart No. 3 are about l/lOth of the men 
who took the South Parks Civil Service physical test in 
the class in which these :nen were tested. 

Out of all the men tested, only the best of the 
group will be api^ointed. This means that tne men in Class 
"A" (sec classification" will more than likely be the men 
selected, all ot^.er things being equal. However, some of 
these men may fail in other subjects, so in order to be 
considerate. Class "B" might be selected as the average man 
appointed. This would mean tiiat tne average policeman 
should score an index of 50.2 in the Sargent's Test or 93.4 
in the Civil Service tests. But some men may be appointed 
in Class "C which means that they begin with an index of 
43. or 81.5 in the Civil Service. 



- 93 
(i) Chart No. 4: 
Sargent' G Test Applied to Group of Policemen: 



1 

Ho. Name 
54. Keilty 


fears 

of 

Ser, 


Ar.e 

30 


^p;t. 
186 


Hi-t. 


Jump 




Set. 

Test 
Index 


CiTil 
Serv. 
Equiv. 




H 


G9. 


403 


70. 


100- 


Class "A" 


23. FolDom 
64. DeKoker 


4 


26 
34 


182 

230 


72.5 
68.5 


25.25 
18.5 


386 
345 


63.6 

62.4 


100- 

100- 


Set. Index 
56.5 or 
better 


60. F.R. Smith 


2 


32 


182 


72. 


20. 


303 


50.5 


9o 


Class "B" 
S£,t. Index 
50.2 A 

56.5 


73. Capt.Alliiian 


15 


49 


183 


70. 


19, 


289 


49. 


■y.. 




17. T. Lyons 


2 


28 


151 


Qa,kb 


21.75 


292 


48.7 


;.i 




72. Lt. McCarthy 


15 


48 


182 


69.75 


18.25 


270 


47.6 


39 


Class "C" 


70. Lt. Condon 


13 


45 


20 7i 


69.75 


16.25 


279 


48.1 


91 


Sgt. Index 


69. Sgt. Sloop 


12 


45 


178 


69.75 


18. 


267 


46.5 


88 


betv/een 


42. Nortin 


2 


29 


192 


67.5 


16.25 


268 


46. 


87 


43. & 


35. R.O'Hearn 


2 


28 


145 


58.75 


21.25 


280 


44.7 


S4- 


50.2 


65. Nolan 


3 


35 


158 


70.25 


22.75 


261 


44.5 


84 




21. Addison 


1 


26 


149 


70.25 


20. 2£ 


252 


42.8 


80- 


Class "D* 


22. A. O'Brien 


l/o 


2o 


172 


C9. 




242 


42.6 


80 


Sgt. Index 


34. L.Lyons 


2 


28 


148 


70.25 


19. 


234 


39.9 


74 


belo-.7 43. 


43. Hobbs 


4 


29 


160 


70.75 


17. Li 


226 


39. 


73 




48. P.La-.7ler 


1 


30 


165 


67.75 


16. 


220 


37.1 


70 





- 94 - 

Classification of these policei according to tr^eir 
physical efiiciency. 

Class "A" ; Uen making 56.5 or better in the Sargent* 8 
Test. Those falling in this class are to be considered 
physically efficient and -Tiost callable of purforming the 
duties of a policenian. Three of the seventetin policemen 
tested fall in t^.is class. Each police station ougiit to 
clacaify their ;nen perioaically by means of tne Sar^^ent's 
Test and keep the men who fail into Class "A" as a select 
group to be used on special occasions vmere the best physical 
men aiay oe needed. Some sr.ecial concession could be made to 
these :.ien as an incentive to others to keep up their x^iysical 
efficiency. 

Class "B" ; :'.en making 50.2 or more, and less than 
56.5 in the Sargent's Test. Those falling in tiiis class are 
considered to be physically efficient to perform the duties 
of a policeman but who iiave not quite reached the ideal 
condition. But one of the seventeen men tested falJc in this 
class. 

Class "C" ; lien iiiaking between 43. and 50.5 index in 
Sargent's Test. The men in this class are considered to be 
physically efficient in a small degree but who are still 
capable of performing police duty with a degree of physical 
efficiency. The men in this class probably have some minor 
defects w-.ich undoubtedly are remediable or preventable and 
which keeps taem from the higher class. In some cases it is 



- 95 - 
overweleht; in othcro it is un^erz/eiijht, or, in others it 
may be lack of exercise or ovcr-exercise; or it inay be due 
to age for -.vhich some allowance should be iiAde. 

Class "D" : Hen i'da.^.int; unaer 43* index in the Gargcnt's 
Test* The ir^en failing into tnis clacD are conoidered piiys- 
icaliy inefficient and snould be compelled to take Ett;ps 
w. ich will bring them into a higxier class. These steps may 
be physical exercise, cnan^ie of x^abits, rest or meaical 
attention. 



- 96 - 

IX. CONCLUSION REGARDING PHYSICAL EFFICIENCY OF THE 
POLICEMAN OF CHICAGO. 

A certain minority of the men are physically efficient 
aftei' they are in the department a year or more. The majority 
are physically inefficient - just below the mark as set by 
the Civil Service as the standard of physical efficiency. 
There is a certain minority of this group that are far below 
the danger line. 

All of these men at one time had the capacity to 
measure up to the standards of the department, or they would 
not have been employed. The question as to why they have 
become physically inefficient may be summed up in the 
followine: 

1. Uninterested in own physical efficiency. 

2. Lack of health information. 

3. Irregular hours of eating, sleeping and working, 

4. No regular play or wholesome recreation. 

5. Over-eating. 

6. Lack of regular, vigorous exercise. 

7. Lack of team spirit. 

Summing up the condition of the Chicago Police De- 
partment in its relation to physical efficiency, we find 
that here is a large group of men between the ages of 21 
ajid 60 who are required to live a very irregular life 



- 97 - 
because of the nature of the work; the men believing that 
the city is responsible for their ;.hysical condition, and 
the city leaving it to the men. As a consequence, the men 
become physically ineflicient unless tney have the 
intellicence to take t.ic matter in their own hands. 

Therefore, it would seem that one of the fundamental 
questions to be answered first, is: TTho is responsible 
for the policeman's inefficiency? Some will say tnat the 
man should take it upon himself, and otners will say that 
because his efficiency concerns the public directly; the 
public should see to it that he is efficient. 

It has not been the purpose of the writer to say 
which is right, but merely tnrow a little light on the 
subj ect : 

A. Some reasons why the policeman should be 
interested in his physical efficiency. 

1. Physical inefficiency shows susceptibility 
to disease. 

2. Disease means physical discomfort, loss of 
vitality and loss of money. 

3. Causes premature death which causes poverty 
and dispondency of members of family. 

B. Reasons why the city should be interested in 
the physical efficiency of the policeman: 

1. Physical inefficiency means inefficient 
police service. 

2. Inefficient police service mesms an increase 
in crime and immorality. 



- 98 - 
3. Crime and immorality effects the pocketbook 
and health of the public. 
This much, therefore, is certain: that physical 
inefficiency effects both the individual and the public and 
both are responsible to some extent. 

Value of Physical Training to Individual. 
According to the biologic or physiologic theory, 
which is the theory of to-day, the body is a machine with 
which :aan does his work in the world. Care and training 
are requisite in order that it riiay be perfect in all its 
parts at maturity. John Lock, in the sixteenth century, 
says, "keep the body in strength and vigor, so triat it may 
be able to obey and execute the orders of the mind". He 
would be uttering the same truth to-day to the Police, if 
he were here. Rousseau, back in the seventeenth century, 
says, "a good servant ought to be robust. Tr^e weaker the 
body, the more it commands; the stronger it is, the better 
it obeys*. 

Professor Tyler, in his "Growth and Education* 
presents the strongest argument in favor of physical 
training that can be drawn from the biologic point of view. 
He shows the part that motor activity has played in the 
evolution of organs through the ascending scale of animal 
life. "The development of the heavy muscles", he concludes, 
"necessitated and stimulated the development of our vital 
organs, heart, lungs and kidneys." These form a closely 
related group. Muscular exercise is still necessary for 



- 99 - 
the development eind maintenance of tiaese orcans in the 
individual or child. They respond to muscular stimuli as 
they never do to the brain. This ajjpears to oe one of the 
stroneest argtiments in favor of physical training for the 
adult (:.olicoman) . 

Further proof as to the value of physical training 
to the mental life of tiie individual is set forth by Tyler. 
He says the muscular system is the "key to the development 
of the brain. Nervous development followed the increase 
of locomotion and increased the use of the senae ort^ans, 
especially of the eyes. Mental exercise of a logical sort 
has added only the finishing touches to the development 
of the brain. It originated as the switch board bet.veen 
ti.e sensory stimuli and muscular movement. It ie still a 
part of the great neuro- muscular system. Brain and muscle 
are never divorced in the action of h.althy higher ani.aals 
or of the msLn* . 

The Public's Part. 
Now, because the public is affected unpleasantly by 
something for which it is partly responsible and over which 
it has control, it would then seem logical that the public 
take the first positive steps toward remedying the cause 
of the physical efficiency of the police. Following this, 
the police should then concede to some plan ti^at would 
give them the vim, vigor and vitality which means physical 
efficiency and a longer life. 



- 100 - 
There are a number of ways that the public jnifiht 
bring about this better condition: 

1. Take legislative measures, i.e., make Civil 
Service laws that will require the policeman to 
be given regular physical training ana lessons 
in Health eiucation, under trained physical 
directors. 

2. Interest various institutions, such as tne 
Y.M.C.A. , social settlements, ati.letic clubs, 
parks and playgrounds, etc., in the physical 
welfare of the police, so tiiat tiiey will put a 
place on their program that vvill accomuiodate 
the police and hold and interest them. 



- 101 - 
X. THE Y. M. C. A. AND THE POLICE. 

In a recent issue of "Physical Training" (Vol. XX, 
No. 3, pp. 87-90), we read the report of the Seventh 
Meeting of the Physical Directors* Society of the Y.M.C.A. 
of North America, which took place at Atlantic City, IJ.J., 
Nov. 20, 1922. Here we find mention of work with National 
Guard Units within the company or reciment, with or without 
an Armory, and at Camps; work with visiting fleets, etc. 

We also find a more detailed report of the Ai-my and 
Navy Association with a statcinent of their objective which 
reads: "In the physical work program of the Army and Navy 
Y.M.C.A., we seek to co-operate with the officers of the 
Army and Navy in developing the highest type of morale 
among the men of the Service by means of physical exercise, 
recreation and education". 

"Further, in harmony with the supreme objective of 
the Y.M.C.A., the Physical Committee and staff should seek 
to promote the program in such away that will develop the 
finest physical, mental and spiritual efficiency so 
essential to the making of the best type of virile Christian 
manhood." 

Picking up the Chicago newspapers any day, we read 
of wesUcnesses in the Police Department which at times are 
greatly magnified and at other times greatly belittled. 
However, leaving tlie newspapers out of the question, and 
speaking of a first hand experience of talking over various 



- 102 - 
situations with a great number of officers, I find that 
there is a wonderful opportunity for the Y.U.C.A. to 
adopt a similar objective for work with the Police 
Departments of our larger cities. 

Dr. Gulick summarizes the objective of physical 
education, as follows: 

1. Health - cure of disease and prevention of disease. 

2. Education - symmetry - muscular strne^th - 

endurance - ability - grace (economy 
of action) - muucular control - 
physical judgjnent - physical courage - 
self-possession - expression. 

3. Recreation - pleasure in priysical activity - 

relieve strain. 

4. Glory - the glory of being a star athlete. 

5. LlTllhood - for the professional man. 

Prom the standpoint of health, the physical department 
of the Association is capable of administering to the needs 
of the policeaan as are few organizations or institutions. 
The trained physical director realizes that the nature and 
extent of all physical training is determined by the state 
of health of the participants, and, tlierefore, every rational 
course in such training must have the development of the 
human organism in its entirety for its primary object. 

This can only be accomplished if the means employed 
will give to each organ that which will aid it in the dis- 
charge of its peculiar functions and establish a co-ordinated. 



- 103 - 
organic balance between the organs upon which the condition 
of perfect health depends. 

To insure the maintenance of this balance, the 
training must endeavor to develop the recuperative and re- 
sistive powers of the vital organs in such a degree that 
each has a surplus of energy at its disposal against which 
it may draw in its ovm favor or in favor of the others when 
the exigency for such compensation presents itself. 

In considering a program of physical training for the 
police which will measure up to the foregoing objectives 
and purposes of physical education, we must look to the needs 
of the individuals body, mind and spirit. We have found 
these needs to be riglit in line with the purpose of the 
physical department of the Y.M.C.A. However, as in almost 
all lines of Y.M.C.A. work, there are some factors relating 
to the individual's health which are beyond the power of 
the Association to regulate. In this case, it happens to 
be the irregularity of ;7orkings hours which change from 
month to month. This is a particular handicap to the 
policeman as far as getting his proper sleep or rest and 
exercise. The sleep, the Association cannot directly remedy 
but the exercise it can. This can be done by arranging 
clasces so that the men may change from one class to another 
class as they are shifted from the various shifts in their 
work. In this way, the men could be kept active and a deep 
interest created in the -velfare of their personal physical 
efficiency. In the gym. classes, short talks on health and 



- 104 - 
hygiene would add greatly to their ability to keep fit; 
particular emphasis being placed upon effects of over- 
eating and under- exercising, eto. 

Some of the police stations have small gymnasiums 
and equipment in the station house, and all that is lacking 
is someone to lead the men on. The officers in charge of 
the stations are quite willing to have someone come in to 
get the men into oome kind of activity, but the gym and 
equipment are Just there accumulating dust. Here is a 
wonderful opportunity for extension work for the "Y". 

\Vhile many of the younger men may not be reached 
through regular gym classes, they could be reaches, tiirough 
athletics and games. Bach district should have a tjam in 
all major sports, and the "Y" could use its quiet periods 
to stage these games in the ^jym where possible, or in some 
public park or gymnasium. 

As the Chicago Association is pushing out Into all 
parts of Chicago, there is a great opportunity for public 
service in administering to the needs of the police. There 
are L^iany problems to be met in getting the ball rolling but 
the writer believes that there are enough men in each 
district to afford a nucleus for the organization of an 
athletic council which would meet with a local Association 
physical director to discuss and organize plans for 
physical activities in the various stations. 

Ihe Sargent Test is one means of getting men to real- 
ize their physical efficiency as shown by the interest taken 



- 105 - 
"by men of the Englewood Station. Had the writer been able 
to arranee his time so as to be at the Snelewood Station 
at times when the men were going on and off duty, he would 
have i^iren the majority of the men at the station the test. 
This may be a good activity for a local physical director 
to introduce as a competitive event which would arouse an 
interest among the men. 

In prescribing exercise for the men, they may be 
divided into three clasnes: 

Class I. Correcponding to Class "A" and "B" on 

Chart No. 4, page 93. 
Class II. Corresponding to Class "C" on Chart No. 4. 
Class III. Corresponding to Class "D" on Chart No. 4. 
The following chart is an attempt to give the types 
of exercise and the amount of each type to be given in one 
class session: 

The figures appearing under "Speed", "strength", etc., 
indicate the degree to which this element is to hold sway in 
the pliase of activity opposite v/hich it appears. Each 
Group has its o^rm particular needs, and, therefore, in some 
phases of activity there is a difference in emphasis as 
shown by the figures: 



- 106 - 
Evaluation of Physical Activities and Prescribing 
Than to Groups: 



Indoor 
Activities 




0R( 


3UP 

Si 

1 


I 

1 


1 


G 

(A 


ECU 

1 


P I 

i 

i 


I 

1 




G 


^•0l 


rp 


rii 

1 

1 


1 


Group 

needs 
I, II. 
Ill 


Calisthenics 


3 


2 


3 


2 




2 


1 


5 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


6 


3 




5 


Apparatus 




6 


1 


3 






5 


2 


2 


1 




5 


1 


2 


2 








Rxinning 


6 


1 


2 






6 


1 


2 






5 


1 


2 


1 


1 






i 


Jumping 


3 


2 


1 






3 


2 


1 






3 


2 


1 


4 








i 


Vaulting 


1 


3 


2 






1 


3 


1 




1 


1 


3 


1 


4 
2 


1 








Uass Games 


3 


3 


3 






3 


2 


3 




1 


2 


2 


3 


1 






1 


Wrestling 


2 


5 


2 






1 


6 


2 






1 


6 


2 


1 










Boxing 


6 


1 


2 






6 


1 


2 






6 


1 


2 


1 










Basket ^all 


2 


1 


6 






2 


1 


6 






2 


1 


6 


1 








3 


Base Ball 


3 


3 








3 


3 








3 


3 




4 






Volley Ball 


3 


2 




5 




3 


2 








3 


2 




5 




Hand Ball 


3 


1 


2 


2 




3 


1 


2 




3 


3 


1 


2 


1 


3 








UKl^ Oi' GROUP 


2 


3 


3 


2 




^ 


-. 


4 




1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


5 









The figures appearing under "speed", "streneth", etc. 
and being opposite "Need of Group" designates the degree to 
which the elements should appear in the prograa. 

Under "Group needs" at the upper extrejne riiJit, are the 
figures reprosenting the percent of each activity that should 
be represented in the program to aeet the needs of the differ- 
ent groups of policemen. These are figured on a basis of 10. 



- 107 - 
In oany caoes, combinations could be arran^jied. such as 
boxine movements in calisthenics, nmning and calisthenics, 
mass games with wrestling, i.e., pulling and tugcing, mass 
games with running, such as relays. 

The writer has not presented this chart as an absolute 
and thorough evaluation of the activities and the prescribing 
of same to the different groups, but it is merely an attempt 
to show the method of meeting the needs of any groups, as 
suggested by M. I. Foss in "Physical Training", June, 1922. 

However, as has been ahown early in this work, the 
policeman's duties correspond to various forms of athletics. 
These duties are irregular and unless the policeman goes 
tiirough the act of performing these duties he ought to have 
some activity that is si-;J.lar to them. 

The regular Y.M.C.A. physical program, when carried 
out effectively, can be ioade to give the policexiian all the 
practice and training that he needs. But, as has been said 
before, the police are handicapped in that they cannot 
arrange their time to attend the regular scheduled classes 
of the Association. 



- 103 - 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Prof. Bobbitt - "Curriculum-Malcing in Los Aneeies*. 

De-.vey - "How We Thini:''. 

Dev/ey - "Democracy and Education". 

Annual Report of Civil Service Coamiasion, City of Chicago. 

Illinois Health Insurance Report, p. 156. 

licKenzie - '•Exercise and Health", p. 371. 

Dr. Hutchinson - "Exercise an Health". 

Fisher and Pisk - "How To Live", p. 30. 

Harry Einerson Posdick - "Twelve Tests of Ciiaracter" - 
Ladies' Hoae Journal. 

John rill Robertson, M.D. - Home Journal of Health and 
Sanitation, p. 13. 

International Encyclopedia - "Police". 

Chicaco Tribune - February 29, 1923. 

Chicago Daily News - 

L. F. Puld - American Physical Education Review - Vol. 14, 
p. 168. 

Civil Service Text Book, City of Chicago, 

Col. H. J. Kochler - ':7e3t Point Manuel of Disciplinary 
Physical Training. 

Raycroft - "Mass Physical Training". 

Civil Service Laws and Rules for City of Chicago, June 1, 1920 

Mind and Body - Vol. 29, p. 395. 

Dr. Sargent - American Physical Education Beview. 

Arnold Bennett - "Take Stock of Yourself" - Pictorial Review - 
February, 1923. 

TcKenzie - "Exercise and Health". 



- 109 - 

Brubaker - "Textbook of Physiology*. 

"Physical Training" - Vol. 10, NO. 3; Report of 

Physical Eiroctors* Society of Y.M.C.A. of America 

B. Christy - "Goin^; Afoot". 



UBRARY 



1923 Ru 6212 

Ruehrweom 

Physical aspects of physical educatior 
for police